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Showing 17 results for Precipitation

Morakabati M., Arabi H., Mirdamadi Sh., Abbasi S.m.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2005)
Abstract

This study was launched to investigate the effects of heating rate and aging parameters on the kinetic of precipitation reactions in a high alloy high strength steel having Ni, Co, Mo and Ti. For this purpose, as quenched specimens were subjected to three types of aging methods with different heating rates. These methods consisted of aging in Pb bath, salt bath, and furnace at different aging cycles. The kinetic of precipitation in each method was studied by hardness measurements and was described adequately by the Johnson-mehl-Avrami equation. Remarkable increase in hardness and its rate is observed when the rate of heating increases. The substantial increase in hardness of the specimens aged rapidly in salt & Pb baths, compared with those aged normally in furnace, seemed to be due to the formation of thermo elastic stresses during sudden expansion of the substance subjected to rapid heating. According to the results obtained in this research, increase in the Avrami constants, n & k, and decrease in the start time of transformation, ts, are associated with heating rate increasing. Analysis of the observed and calculated data for hardness using Arrhenius equation, shows that for the same amount of volume fraction of precipitates, the activation energy of precipitates decreased for f=25 and 50%, while at f=90 % it increased by increasing heating rate.
Sheikhi Moghaddam K., Ataie A.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2005)
Abstract

Ultra-fine particles of barium hexaferrite have been synthesized by co-precipitation method using barium nitride and iron chloride precursors with a Fe/Ba molar ratio of 11. Co-precipitation was carried out at 25 and 80°C using NaOH as a precipitant. Effect of coprecipitation and annealing temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the products have been investigated using XRD and SEM, respectively. XRD results indicated existence of BaFeO3-x as a major phase in co-precipitated samples. Analysis of the XRD results also revealed that barium hexaferrite starts to form at a relatively low temperature of 700°C for sample synthesized at 80°C. SEM micrographs exhibit plate-like hexagonal particles of barium hexaferrite for calcined samples. The SEM results showed that the mean particle size of co-precipitated sample at 25°C is smaller than that of 80°C after calcining.
Baradari H., Amani Hamedani H., Karimi Khoygani S., Rezaei H.r., Javadpour J., Sar Poulaki H.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2006)
Abstract

Ultrafine hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders with crystallite size in the range of 10-90 nm were synthesized by chemical precipitation process using Ca(OH)2 and H3PO4 solutions as starting materials. Molar ratio of Ca/P=1.68 was kept constant throughout the process and alkaline condition for the reaction was maintained using ammonium hydroxide. The role of raw material concentration on HAp crystallite size and morphology were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that variations in crystallite size and morphology of synthesized HAp are strongly affected by the concentration of acid solution. To study the sintering behavior of HAp particles, the powders were pressed at 200 MPa using a uniaxial press. Sintering experiments were carried out at temperatures of 1100, 1250 and 1300°C with various soaking times at maximum temperatures. XRD was also used in determining thephases present after sintering process. The results indicated the decomposition of HAp into a-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and b-TCP phases at 1300°C. The microstructure of the sintered HAp ceramics was characterized by SEM.
M. Ardestani,, H. Razavizadeh,, H. Arabi, H. R. Rezaie,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2009)
Abstract

Abstract:

materials can be fabricated by sintering of W-Cu composite powders. In this research W-20%wt Cu composite powders

was synthesized via a co-precipitation method. Precipitate obtained from a mixture of copper nitrate and ammonium

paratungstate (APT) in distilled water contained W-Cu compounds. This precipitate was washed, dried and calcined

at 550

of dried precipitate powder was determined by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray

diffraction (XRD). The sintering of the reduced powders was investigated as a function of temperature. Relative density

of more than 98% obtained for the powders sintered at 1200

close to theoretical calculations. The hardness of the sintered powders was 320 Vickers.

W-Cu composites are widely used as contacts, heat sinks and electro discharge electrodes. These kinds of°C in air and then reduced in H2 atmosphere in order to convert to W-Cu powders. The calcination temperature°C . The corresponding electrical conductivity was too

S. Zavareh, F. Majedi,, M. Sh. Sharif, F. Golestanifard,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2009)
Abstract

Abstract: Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were coated with MgO nano particles using simple precipitationmethod. The growth of Mg(OH)2particles was controlled by adjusting the alkaline concentration, salt concentrationand feed rate in simple precipitation method. The nanometer-sized Mg(OH)2particles were precipitated on the surfaceof functionalized MWCNTs by reaction between MgSO4 solution and NH4OH. The samples have been characterizedby scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and thermal gravimetricanalysis. The results showed a nominally complete MgO coating over the entire outer surface of MWCNTs resulting inimprovement of their oxidation durability.


M. S. Kaiser,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2013)
Abstract

Precipitation behaviour of wrought Al-6Mg alloys with ternary scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium has been studied. Hardness measurements and resistivity studies are employed to assess the precipitation behaviour of scandium doped Al-6Mg alloy without or with quaternary additions of zirconium and titanium. Further, the kinetics of precipitations are studied by differential scanning calorimetric technique. Scandium has been observed to form fine coherent Al3Sc precipitates during ageing and these are responsible for strengthening of the alloys. The precipitation kinetics of Al3Sc depends on the diffusion of scandium in aluminium. Presence of fine coherent precipitates of Al3Sc impedes the migration of dislocations and increase the recovery temperature. The kinetics of recrystallisation is also delayed.
N. Khatami , Sh. Mirdamadi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

The presence of alloying elements, sometimes in a very small amount, affects mechanical properties one of these elements is Boron. In Aluminum industries, Boron master alloy is widely used as a grain refiner In this research, the production process of Aluminum –Boron master alloy was studied at first then, it was concurrently added to 2024 Aluminum alloy. After rolling and homogenizing the resulting alloy, the optimal temperature and time of aging were determined during the precipitation hardening heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C). Then, in order to find the effect of controlled quenching, different cycles of heat treatment including precipitation heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C) and conventional quenching (T6) were applied on the alloy at the aging temperature of 110°C. Mechanical properties of the resulting alloy were evaluated after aging at optimum temperature of 110°C by performing mechanical tests including hardness and tensile tests. The results of hardness test showed that applying the controlled quenching instead of conventional quenching in precipitation heat treatment caused reduction in the time of reaching the maximum hardness and also increase in hardness rate due to the generated thermo-elastic stresses rather than hydrostatic stresses and increased atomic diffusion coefficient as well. Tensile test results demonstrated that, due to the presence of boride particles in the microstructure of the present alloy, the ultimate tensile strength in the specimens containing Boron additive increased by 3.40% in comparison with the specimens without such an additive and elongation (percentage of relative length increase) which approximately increased by 38.80% due to the role of Boron in the increase of alloy ductility
Y. Kianinia, A. K. Darban, E. Taheri-Nassaj, B. Rahnama, A. Foroutan,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

A method for producing high surface area nano-sized mesoporous alumina from inexpensive Iranian kaolin as raw material is proposed. In this method, first, kaolin was purified for purifying Kaolin, High Grade Magnetic Separation and leaching with HCl and chemical bleaching treatment by using sodium dithionite (Na 2 S 2O4 ) as reducing agent in acidic media (H 2SO 4 ) were used. Purified kaolin was calcined. After that, Al (hydr) oxide from acid -leachates of calcined kaolin was precipitated with ammonia, in presence of polyethylene glycol. Finally, a white powder of nano-sized alumina particles was obtained after calcination. BET surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the sample. The resulting alumina with relatively high surface area (201.53 m 2 g -1 ) and narrow mean pore diameter (6.91 nm), consists of a particle size distribution ranging from 22 to 36 nm.
V. Mote, B. Dole,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals were prepared by co-precipitation route sintered at 450 °C temperature. XRD results indicate that the samples having hexagonal (wurtzite) structure. From X-ray data it is found that the lattice parameters increase with increasing Mn concentration. The X-ray density decreases with increasing Mn concentration of Zn 1-x Mnx O nanocrystals. It indicates that the Mn ions go into the Zn site in the ZnO lattice structure. TEM results reveal that the pure and Mn substituted ZnO samples are spherical in shape with average particle size about 20-60 nm. The crystalline size and lattice strain were evaluated by Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis using X-ray peak broadening data. All other relevant physical parameters such as strain, stress and energy density were calculated by the different models Viz, uniform deformation model (UDM), uniform deformation stress model (UDSM) and Uniform deformation energy density model (UDEDM) considering the Williamson-Hall analysis. These models reveal different strain values it may be due to the anisotropic nature of the material. It is found that the mean particle size of Zn 1-x MnxO nanoparticles was estimated from TEM analysis, Scherrer’s formula & W-H analysis is highly comparable
A. Abbasian, M. Kashefi, E. Ahmadzade-Beiraki,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2015)
Abstract

Precipitation hardening is the most common method in the strengthening of aluminium alloys. This method relies on the decrease of solid solubility with temperature reduction to produce fine precipitations which impede the movement of dislocations. The quality control of aluminium alloy specimens is an important concern of engineers. Among different methods, non-destructive techniques are the fastest, cheapest and able to be used for all of parts in a production line. To assess the ability of eddy current as a non-destructive method in the evaluation of precipitation hardening of aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy specimens were solution treated at 480°C for 1 hr. and followed by water quenching. Afterwards, the specimens were aged at different temperatures of 200, 170, 140, 110 and 80°C for 8 hr. Eddy current measurements was conducted on the aged specimens. Hardness measurement and tensile test were employed to investigate the mechanical properties. It was demonstrated that eddy current is effectively able to separate the specimens with different aging degree due to the change of electrical conductivity during aging process
A. A. Babakoohi Ashrafi, H. Mohammadi, A. Habibolla Zade,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

In this paper, the influence of heat treatment on PH17-7 stainless steel spring was evaluated. Precipitation hardening phenomenon of  PH 17-7 steel was evaluated in three stages. First, the spring constant changes with time and temperature was evaluated. Second, the spring constant changes with respect to its original length at constant temperature and time with blocking (spring length after compression, 18 and 21 mm) were investigated.  And finally, the spring heat treatment at 480 °C for 80 min and then holding at 230 °C in oil bath for 60 min without blocking were investigated. The results showed that the use of 18 mm block have large spring constant than 21 mm block. The optimal conditions (480°C for 80 min) for this spring to reaching maximum spring constant were determined.

AWT IMAGE


N. Maskani, R. Naghizadeh, A. Mirhabibi, H. Rezaie,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2017)
Abstract

The synthesis of micro-sized, uniformly distributed Al2O3-15Vol% Ni powders were studied through three step co-precipitation of hydroxides mixtures from proper solution, calcination at air atmosphere and final step of calcined powders in a carbon bed. Al and Ni hydroxide and amorphous phase were first obtained from their salt’s solutions through chemical co-precipitation method by adjusting pH. The precipitated powders were then calcined to obtain a mixture of their oxides as NiO and NiAl2O4 which were reduced in a carbon bed at various temperatures up to 1300. Proper temperature for calcination in air was determined through TG analysis; 900. SEM observation of powders after reduction, revealed micro-sized Ni particles, along with fin distribution of Ni and Al2O3 elements. XRD analysis of the calcined sample showed the presence of NiAl2O4 and NiO and the same analysis for the reduced sample confirmed the formation of Al2O3 and Ni.    


M. Ebrahimi, S. A. Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. M. Masoudpanah,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2017)
Abstract

In this work, the effects of co-precipitation temperature and post calcination on the magnetic properties and photocatalytic activities of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated. The structure, magnetic and optical properties of zinc ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry and UV–Vis spectrophotometry techniques.  The XRD results showed that the coprecipitated as well as calcined nanoparticles are single phase with partially inverse spinel structures. The magnetization and band gap decreased with the increasing of co-precipitation temperature through the increasing of the crystallite size. However, the post calcination at 500 °C was more effective on the decreasing of magnetization and band gap. Furthermore, photocatalytic activity of zinc ferrite nanoparticles was studied by the degradation of methyl orange under UV-light irradiation. Compare with the coprecipitated ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles with 5% degradation of methyl orange after 5 h UV-light light radiation, the calcined ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles exhibited a better photocatalytic activity with 20% degradation.


Chimmachandiran Suresh Kumar, Kaliyan Dhanaraj, Ramasamy Mariappan Vimalathithan, Perumal Ilaiyaraja, Govindhasamy Suresh,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (3-2021)
Abstract

The Nano Hydroxyapatite (HAp), HAp/PEG and HAp/PVP powders derived from both Gastropod shell (natural source) and chemical precursor by the precipitation method were characterized through various characterization techniques such as FT-IR, XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, Antibacterial activity and SBF analysis. Based on the structural, chemical, morphological and biological characteristics, HAp/PVP from natural and chemical precursors have been compared successfully. Calculated structural parameters, crystallinity index, C/P ratio, morphology, antibacterial activity and SBF analysis of the products show that HAp/PVP-S (derived from a natural source) exhibits good mechanical property, rod like morphology, good antibacterial activity and apatite formation ability at 14 days. EDX analysis also shows the presence of carbon and sodium in HAp/PVP-S. Comparative analysis reveals that characteristics of HAp/PVP-S such as high carbonate content, low crystallite size, poor crystalline nature, presence of trace metal, non-stoichiometric elemental composition and rod like crystals which are matched with the characteristics of biological apatite. Thus, the HAp/PVP-S has the ability to form bone apatite.
Usha Vengatakrishnan, Kalyanaraman Subramanian, Vettumperumal Rajapand, Dhineshbabu Nattanmai Raman,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (9-2021)
Abstract

Copper oxide (CuO) nanostructure particles were prepared using KOH/NaOH catalyst by low cost precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX) analysis. The photocatalytic dye degradation study of pure CuO nanostructure particles are analysed against two azo dyes (Direct black 38 (Black-E) and Congo red) under ultraviolet (UV) and solar irradiation. The release of major active species (*OH) in the photocatalytic degradation by as prepared CuO nanostructure particles were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectra with two different excitation wavelength (325and 355nm). The band gap of CuO nanostructure particles was calculated from diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic effect of CuO nanostructure particles is confirmed from the UV – Vis and photoluminescence spectra and also, further confirmed from the kinetic studies under UV and solar radiations. The photocatalytic degradation results revealed that 16.35% and 7.5% of black E and Congo red dye was degraded under UV, while it was 47.2% and 17.6% under solar light. The influence of pH on the photodegradation and change in the reaction temperature under solar irradiation were also analysed
Surekha S. Jadhav, Amit A. Bagade, Tukaram J. Shinde, Kesu Y. Rajpure,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (3-2022)
Abstract

In present work Ni0.7Cd0.3NdxFe2-xO4 ferrite samples (0≤x≤0.03) were prepared by using oxalate co-precipitation technique. The different characterization techniques were achieved using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DC electrical resistivity and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic parameters such as crystal structure, crystallite size, lattice constant, unit cell volume and theoretical density have been systematically analysed. The XRD and FT-IR measurements confirmed the formation of single phase spinel ferrite structure. The cation distribution among the octahedral and tetrahedral sites has been proposed on the basis of analysis of XRD patterns by employing Rietveld refinement analysis. The samples exist as a mixed type spinel with cubic structure. The DC electrical resistivity confirms the semiconducting behaviour and the Curie temperature decreases with increase in Nd3+ content. The dielectric constant and loss tangent decreases with frequency and higher frequencies remain constant, which shows the usual dielectric dispersion due to space charge polarization. The AC conductivity reveals that the small type polarons responsible for conduction process.
Sajad Ghaemifar, Hamed Mirzadeh,
Volume 20, Issue 4 (12-2023)
Abstract

Phase transformations and the evolution of hardness during elevated-temperature annealing of Inconel 718 superalloy manufactured by the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) were investigated. The microstructural evolution, elemental analysis, phase formation, and hardening were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation test, respectively. It was observed that the effect of annealing treatments is directly governed by the annealing parameters (i.e. time and temperature), for which the hardness measurement as a fruitful and convenient tool can reveal this effect. The increase of the hardness, which was obtained by the annealing (aging) treatments at the temperature range of 800-900 °C, indicated precipitation of the Ni3Nb γ˝ strengthening phase; while owing to the coarsening of precipitates as a results of overaging at this temperature range, the hardness decreased. For instance the length and aspect ratio of precipitates in the aged sample at 800 °C for 1 h is 67.14 nm and 0.32, respectively; while these values in the aged sample at 800 °C for 8 h is 78.34 nm and 0.44, respectively. On the other hand, the decrease of the hardness at temperatures of 950 and 1000 °C was attributed to the decrease of dislocation density in conjunction with the Ni2Nb Laves phase dissolution. Hence, it is crucial to determine the annealing parameters according to the required microstructure and properties.

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