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Showing 13 results for Nanostructure

A. Najafi, F. Golestani-Fard, H. R. Rezaie, N. Ehsani,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Abstract: SiC nano particles with mono dispersed distribution were synthesized by using of silicon alkoxides and phenolic resin as starting materials. After synthesis of sample, characterizations of the obtained powder were investigated via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with 400-4000 cm-1, X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Laser Particle Size Analyzing (LPSA), Si29 NMR analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). FTIR and Si29 NMR results of the gel powder indicated that Si-O-C bonds were formed due to hydrolysis and condensation reactions . FTIR results showed a very strong peak for heat treated powder at 1500°C after carbon removal which is corresponded to Si-C bond. Obtained pattern from X-ray diffractometry showed that the final products contain -SiC phase with poly crystalline planes and little amounts of residual carbon. PSA results showed that the average particles size were 50.6 nm with monosized distribution. Also microstructural studies showed that the SiC nano powders have semi spherical morphology with mean particles size of 30-50 nm and also there are some agglomerates with irregular shape.
V. Tajer-Kajinebaf, H. Sarpoolaky, T. Mohammadi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

Abstract:Nanostructured titania was synthesized by colloidal and polymeric sol-gel routes. Stable colloidal and polymeric titania sols were prepared by adjusting the proper values of the acid/alkoxide and the water/alkoxide molar ratios. The properties of sols were determined by dynamic light scattering technique and synthesized titania was characterized by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, optical microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results showed particle size distribution of colloidal sol 10-50 nm compared to polymeric one which was 0.5-2 nm. Phase analysis of the colloidal sample revealed anatase as the major phase up to 550 °C, while the polymeric route resulted only anatase phase up to 750 °C. On the basis of results, titania prepared by the polymeric route showed better thermal stability against phase transformation than the sample prepared by the colloidal route. Also, microstructural studies showed that titania nanopowder can be produced by both sol-gel routes
J. Jac Faripour Maybody, A. Nemati, E. Salahi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2013)
Abstract

In the present study, bioceramic composites based hydroxyapatite (HAp) reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was synthesized via sol-gel technique. The dried gels were individually heated at a rate of 5°C/min up to 600°C for 2 h in a muffle furnace in order to obtain HAp-MWCNTs mixed powder. Composites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM/SAED/EDX and Raman spectroscopy techniques. Results showed the synthesis of HAp particles in the MWCNTs sol which was prepared in advance, leads to an excellent dispersion of MWCNTs in HAp matrix. Apparent average size of crystallites increased by increasing the percentage of MWCNTs. The average crystallite size of samples (at 600°C), estimated by Scherrer’s equation was found to be ~50-60 nm and was confirmed by TEM. MWCNTs kept their cylindrical graphitic structure in composites and pinned and fastened HAp by the formation of hooks and bridges.
A. Karimbeigi, A. Zakeri, A. Sadighzadeh,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2013)
Abstract

Ni and Cu elemental powder mixtures containing 25, 50, and 75% at Cu were subjected to mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill under various milling times. Structural evolution was analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental results indicated that nanostructured solid solution alloy powders having homogeneous distribution of Ni and Cu were formed by milling-induced interdiffusion of the elements. Average crystallite size of the as-milled powders was decreased with increasing Ni content and milling duration, and found to be in the order of 15-40 nm after 30 h of milling for all powder compositions. Moreover, lattice parameter and lattice strain of solid solutions were increased with the time of MA, which was more intense for nickel-rich alloys
Sh. Damghanian, H. Omidvar, S. H. Tabaian, A. R. Azadmehr,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2014)
Abstract

The conical nanostructure improves the applications of alumina membranes and provides three dimensional nanometer scale systems to study the chemical and physical properties. In this study, the nano cone structure is produced in porous anodic alumina (PAA) by two-step anodizing. This conical nanostructure will improve the application of PAA membranes. This approach is novel generation of the so-called "gradually decreased voltage" technique, in which the voltage- time curve is divided into three stages and the effect of each step is investigated for different electrolytes. The effect of the decreasing voltage is examined in two types of electrolytes oxalic and phosphoric acid with a constant decrease in voltage rate. The results of SEM, FE-SEM images show the slope of the inner cone layer in the oxalic acid to be considerably larger compared with phosphoric acid.
A. Tadjarodi, M. Imani, A. Iraji Zad,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (9-2017)
Abstract

In this work, we report the synthesis of silver decamolybdate, Ag6Mo10O33, nanostructure by a simple mechanohemical process followed by calcination treatment using acetamide as driving agent. Morphological study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed bundles of rods grown closely together with an average diameter of 92 nm for Ag6Mo10O33 sample. Ni-substituted Ag6Mo10O33 compound was prepared via introducing nickel cation to precursor system in mechanical milling step. The particle size decreased to 87 nm by incorporating nickel units in substituted polymolybdate. It was concluded that the suitable selection of reagents can direct solid phase reaction towards producing nanostructured products. This technique is easy and simple for preparation of various mixed metal oxides without using any solvents and or complex procedures. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared products was studied on the removal of 4-nitro phenol (4-NP) as organic pollutant from water. The obtained results were also discussed in detail.


A. Ostovari Moghaddam, A. Shokuhfar, A. Cabot,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (12-2019)
Abstract

Metal sulfides containing non-toxic and earth abundant elements have emerged as new environmentally friendly thermoelectric materials. In the present work, a new, fast and large scale route to synthesise bulk nanostructured Co1-xCuxSbS paracostibite is presented. Stoichiometric compositions of Co1-xCuxSbS nanoparticles with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.08 were first processed by high energy ball milling for 3 h, and then annealed at different temperatures between 400 ºC to 650 ºC for 1 h. The phase transitions and diffusion process during annealing were thoroughly studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Agglomerated nanoparticles with sizes in the range from 40 nm to 80 nm were obtained after 3 h of ball milling, and remained below 100 nm after annealing and hot pressing. The thermoelectric properties of hot pressed samples, including the Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical conductivity (σ) and thermal conductivity (k), were measured from room temperature up to 723 K. All the samples exhibited a p-type semiconductor character at room temperature and underwent a transition from p-type to n-type conduction above 473 K. a maximum ZT value of 0.12 was obtained for Co0.06Cu0.04SbS4 at 723 K.

V. Tajer Kajinebaf, M. Zarrin Khame-Forosh, H. Sarpoolaky,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (3-2020)
Abstract

In this research, the nanostructured titania-coated silica microsphere (NTCSM) membrane consisting of titania-silica core-shell particles on α–alumina substrate was prepared by dip-coating method. The silica microspheres were synthesized by the Stöber method, and the nanostructured titania shell was obtained from a polymeric sol. Then, the prepared core-shell particles were deposited on alumina substrates. The samples were characterized by DLS, TG-DTA, XRD, FTIR and SEM. The photo-catalytic activity of the NTCSM membranes was evaluated using photo-degradation of methyl orange solution by UV–visible spectrophotometer. Also, physical separation capability was investigated by filtration experiment based on methyl orange removal from aqueous solution using a membrane setup. The mean particle size distribution of silica microspheres was determined to be about 650 nm that by deposition of titania nano-particles increased up to about 800 nm. After 60 min UV-irradiation, the dye removal efficiency was determined to be 80% by the membrane. By coupling separation process with photo-catalytic technique, the removal efficiency was improved up to 97%. Thus, the NTCSM membranes showed simultaneous photo-degradation and separation capabilities for dye removal from water.
 
S. Manafi, S. Joughehdoust,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

In this research, calcium titanate (CaTiO3) hollow crystals have been successfully prepared via hydrothermal method. Titanium tetrachloride, calcium chloride dihydrate and potassium hydroxide were used as Ti, Ca and precipitating agent, respectively. The hydrothermal synthesis was performed at different temperatures and time durations. The negative amount of the Gibbs free energy shows the reactivity of the reaction at room temperature. Characterization of CaTiO3 was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optimum condition for preparing CaTiO3 is the sample kept in an autoclave at 300 ℃ for 3 h that requires less energy and time which consists of a high degree of crystallinity. In this research, tetragonal CaTiO3 hollow crystals have been successfully prepared via hydrothermal method. TiCl4, CaCl2.2H2O, and KOH were used as Ti, Ca and precipitating agent, respectively. The hydrothermal synthesis was performed at different temperatures and time durations. Characterization of CaTiO3 was carried out using SEM, HRTEM, and XRD. The sample kept in the autoclave at 300 ℃ for 3 h well crystallized and required less energy and time for synthesis. The powder has a homogenous dispersity of crystals with the range of nanometer to micrometer sizes which makes it a good candidate as a photocatalyst material

N. Akhlaghi, G. Najafpour, M. Mohammadi,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (12-2020)
Abstract

Modification of MnFe2O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) was investigated. The magnetite MnFe2O4 nanoparticles with an average size of ~33 nm were synthesized through a simple co-precipitation method followed by coating with silica shell using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS); that has resulted in a high density of hydroxyl groups loaded on nanoparticles. The prepared MnFe2O4@SiO2 nanoparticles were further functionalized with APTES via silanization reaction. For having suitable surface coverage of APTES, controlled hydrodynamic size of nanoparticles with a high density of amine groups on the outer surface, the APTES silanization reaction was investigated under different reaction temperatures and reaction times. Based on dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential results, the best conditions for the formation of APTES-functionalized MnFe2O4@SiO2 nanoparticles were defined at a reaction temperature of 70 °C and the reaction time of 90 min. The effectiveness of our surface modification was established by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The prepared magnetite nanostructure can be utilized as precursors for synthesizing multilayered core-shell nanocomposite particles for numerous applications such as medical diagnostics, drug, and enzyme immobilization, as well as molecular and cell separation.
Parviz Parviz Mohamadian Samim, Arash Fattah-Alhosseini, Hassan Elmkhah, Omid Imantalab,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (3-2022)
Abstract

In this study, CrN/ZrN multilayer nanostructured coatings with different bilayers (10, 20, and 30) were created by the cathodic arc evaporation. The electrochemical behavior of samples was evaluated by polarization and impedance spectroscopy tests in the Ringer medium and the pin on disk test was used to investigate the tribological behavior of the samples. The results of measurements showed that the electrochemical and tribological behavior of the coatings depends on the number of bilayers and by rising the number of bilayers, the coating shows higher corrosion resistance and better tribological performance. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the specimens after exposure to the corrosion medium showed that the number of surface cavities were formed by the coating that had the highest number of bilayers comparing with other coatings were quite fewer in number and smaller in diameter. The results of the pin on disk test showed that by increasing the number of bilayers from 10 to 30, the coefficient of friction and wear rate decreased and the 30L coating ‌showed better wear resistance.
Mozhgan Hirbodjavan, Arash Fattah-Alhosseini, Hassan Elmkhah, Omid Imantalab,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (12-2022)
Abstract

The principal goal of this research is to produce a CrN/Cu multilayer coating and a CrN single-layer
coating and also compare their electrochemical and antibacterial behavior. In this investigation, the coatings were
applied to the stainless steel substrate by cathodic arc evaporation a sub-division of physical vapor deposition
(CAE-PVD). The present phases were characterized and the thickness of the coatings was measured using X-ray
diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), respectively. Rockwell-C tester was
used to evaluate the adhesion quality. Also, to evaluate the mechanical properties of the coatings such as modulus
of elasticity and hardness, a nanoindentation test was used and the indentation effect and coating topography were
evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Studying the electrochemical behavior of the coatings was done
using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) tests in Ringer's
solution. The results of EIS tests showed that the CrN coating had higher polarization resistance in comparison to
the CrN/Cu coating and an increasing trend of polarization resistance related to both coatings was identified by
rising the time of immersion. Also, using the PDP curves, the CrN and CrN/Cu coating current densities were
estimated at 1.835×10-8 and 2.088×10-8, respectively. The antibacterial activity of CrN and CrN/Cu coatings was
evaluated by the spot-inoculation method. The results of the antibacterial test indicated that compared to CrN
coating, CrN/Cu coating had a better impact on the control of the bacteria growth.
Seyed Farzad Dehghaniyan, Shahriar Sharafi,
Volume 21, Issue 2 (6-2024)
Abstract

Mechanical alloying was employed to synthesize a nanostructured alloy with the chemical formula of (Fe80Ni20)1-xCrx (x= 0, 4). The microstructural and magnetic properties of the samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Additionally, theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) under the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Simulations have demonstrated that an appropriate quantity of chromium (Cr) can dissolve within the BCC-Fe (Ni) structure, resulting in a favorable enhancement of the magnetic moment of the lattice. The XRD results indicated that after 96 hours of milling, Fe (Ni) and Fe (Ni, Cr) with a body-centered cubic (BCC) structure were formed. With increasing milling time, the grain size decreased while the microstrain increased. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of Fe80Ni20 composition increased up to 32 hours of milling, but further milling (up to 96 h) resulted in a decrease in the saturation magnetization However, for the (Fe80Ni20)96Cr4 powders, milling up to 64 h caused a reduction in Ms. The coercivity (Hc) trend was different and increased with longer milling times (up to 96 h) for both compositions.
 


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