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Showing 43 results for Corrosion

Karaminezhaad M., Maghsoudi A.a., Nozhati R., Sakhaei A.,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (12-2004)

A large number of reinforced concrete structures subjected to chloride ions. Two basicapproaches for preventing corrosion of reinforcing steel embedded in concrete are: Increasing theconsolidation of concrete and using different coating on rebars. In present research steel rebarsare coated in different ways: a) 40 µm of zinc electroplated on steel rebar b) Zinc powder withepoxy paste (zinc rich). The rebars were placed in a macrocell design according to ASTM G109-92. Concrete operations were done with mixture designs of high and normal strength concrete.The results show corrosion decrease of zinc coated rebars.
Dehghanian C., Saremi M., Mohammadi Sabet M.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2005)

The synergistic behavior of molybdate and phosphate ions in mitigating the corrosion of mild steel in simulated cooling water was evaluated performing potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy tests. Phosphate and molybdate showed a synergistic effect on corrosion inhibition of steel in simulated cooling water. The observed reduction in anodic and cathodic current densities could be the consequence of incorporation of both phosphate and molybdate ions in forming a protective layer on the surface. The charge transfer resistance of the protective layer formed on steel surface was much greater in presence of both ions in solution than that when each inhibitor used alone.
Moayed M.h.,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2005)

In this research pitting Corrosion of a sensitized 316 stainless steel was investigated employing potentiodynamic, potentiostatic techniques. Sensitization process was carried out on as-received alloy by submitting the specimen in electric furnace set at 650°Cfor five hours and then the specimen was quenched 25°C water. Potentiodynamic polarization of as received and sensitized specimens in 1M H2SO4 solution at room temperature and 70°C clearly revealed that the sensitization process has caused a magnificent change on electrochemical behavior of the specimen by changing critical current density for passivation, passivation potential and passive current density. Optical microscopy examination of the specimen surface after oxalic acid electrochemical etching also showed the deterioration of grain boundary of sensitized specimen due to chromium carbide precipitation in compared to as-received one. Several anodic potentiodynamic polarization on rode shaped working electrodes prepared from as-received and sensitized specimen in 3.5% NaCl test solution proved an average ~220 mV drop in pitting potential due to sensitization. Anodic potentiostatic polarization at 400 and 200 mV above corrosion potential also demonstrate the deterioration of pitting resistance of alloy as a result of sensitization. Scanning electron microscopy examination of anodically polarized of sensitized specimen at 700mVprior and after oxalic acid etching revealed large stable pits with lacy cover and also openpits with deep crevice for etched specimens.
Saremi M., Nouri Delavar A., Kazemi M.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2005)

An investigation of the electrochemical noise generation during Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) of 70-30 Brass in Mattson's solution was conducted. The fluctuations of potential and current were monitored. The relationship between potential and current fluctuations has been evaluated in time domain and the obtained data has been analyzed in the frequency domain using Power Spectral Density (PSD). It is shown that 70-30 Brass has characteristic noise behavior during SCC that is step-by-step change in current and potential up to the final stage of fracture, and this may be used for SCC monitoring.
A. Khavasfar1,, M. H. Moayed2, M. M. Attar3,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (12-2007)

Abstract: The performance of an Imidazoline based commercial corrosion inhibitor in CO2 corrosion of a gas-well tubing steel was studied by employing Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique. Inhibitor performance was investigated by means of its efficiency at various concentration and also its behavior at various exposure time. EIS results showed that inhibitor interaction to the electrode surface obeys Lungmuir adsorption isotherm. Interpretation of some parameters such as Rct, Rpf, Cdl, and Cpf associated to the equivalent circuit fitted to the experimental rsults showed that not only inhibitor efficiency and surface coverage improve by increasing in inhibitor concentration in the solution but also at constant inhibitor concentration both surface coverage and efficiency improve with exposure time and reach to their highest value after 4 hours.
A. Ahmadi,, H. Sarpoolaky,, A. Mirhabibi, F. Golestani-Fard,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (12-2007)

Abstract: Dolomite based refractories are widely used in Iranian steelmaking plants. In the present research, wear and corrosion of refractories used in steel-making converter lining in Esfahan Steel Company was studied. Post-mortem analysis of refractories clarified that the wear started with oxidation of carbon followed by chemical corrosion. Iron oxide from slag reacted with calcia, resulting in formation of low melting phase, and subsequent washout process, caused the refractory corrosion onset from the hot face. In addition, the effect of aluminum as an anti-oxidant and graphite on the corrosion resistance of refractory was investigated. Tar-dolomite samples containing different amount of graphite (0, 4, 7, and 10 wt. %) were prepared in order to study their physical properties, before and after coking. SEM micrographs employed to analyze the microstructures to determine the effect of graphite and antioxidant on corrosion behavior of the refractory. Results showed that oxidation process of carbon in the system was hindered and improved corrosion resistance by introducing graphite and antioxidant into the refractory composition.
K. Ghanbari Ahari,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2008)

Abstract: Thermodynamic computational packages MTDATA and FactSage have been used to carry out calculations on the variation with temperature of the phases precipitated on cooling in both oxidising and reducing conditions of a typical ladle slag composition, in the temperature range 1700 - 900°C. The current coverage of the databases associated with the computational packages is discussed in relation to their application to slag - refractory interaction and the validity of the results is compared with some relevant experimental data and phase equilibrium studies
C. Dehghanian, Y. Mirabolfathi Nejad,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2008)

Abstract: Despite having a number of advantages, reinforced concrete can suffer rebar corrosion in high–chloride media, resulting in failure of reinforced concrete structures. In this research the corrosion inhibition capability of the mixture of calcium and ammonium nitrate of steel rebar corrosion was investigated in the simulated concrete pore solution. Cyclic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were applied on steel concrete pore solution containing 2 weight percent sodium chloride (NaCl). Results show that such mixtures had higher inhibition efficiency than calcium nitrate alone. The optimum concentration of the inhibitor mixture was determined to be 45 mgr/lit.
S.r. Allahkaram, R. Shamani,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2009)

Abstract: Due to the expansion of high voltage Alternating Current (AC) power transmission lines and cathodically protected buried pipelines, it is becoming more and more difficult to construct them with enough safe distances between them. Thus, the pipelines are frequently exposed to induced AC interferences, which result in perturbation of Cathodic Protection (CP) due to AC corrosion. To study the above criterion, an experimental set up was used with coupons exposed to simulated soil solutions, while under both CP and AC induced condition for which an AC+DC power supply was utilized. The experiments were carried out in several simulated soil solutions corresponding to several soil samples collected from various regions along a buried pipeline with overhead parallel high voltage power transmission line. The results indicated that AC corrosion depends strongly on the composition of the soil.
S.r. Allahkaram, R. Shamani,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2009)

Abstract: The risks of alternating current (AC) corrosion and overprotection increasingly demand new criteria for
cathodically protected pipelines. To assess the risk of AC corrosion, new cathodic protection (CP) criteria have been
proposed based on DC/AC current densities measurements using coupons. The monitoring system designed for this
project was based on the instant-off method, with steel coupons simulating coating defects on a buried pipeline. The
problems associated with the instantaneous off-potential measurements have been attributed to a non-sufficient time
resolution. In present study, it has been possible to determine the de-polarisation of steel coupon within a few
milliseconds after disconnecting the coupon from the DC/AC power source, by increasing data acquisition rate. For
this, a monitoring system was developed in order to measure the IR-free potential together with the DC/AC current
densities. The monitoring system was utilized for both laboratory experiments and site survey to study the mechanism
and the condition of AC corrosion, its mitigation and more importantly to define new CP criteria.

A. Davoodi, J. Pan,ch. Leygraf, Gh. R. Ebrahimi, M. Javidani,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2009)

Abstract: Localized corrosion of aluminum alloys is often triggered by intermetallic particles, IMP’s. To understandthe role of IMP’s in corrosion initiation of EN AW-3003, efforts were made to combine nano-scale ex-situ analysis ofthe IMP’s by SEM-EDS, SKPFM and in-situ AFM monitoring of the localized attack in chloride containing solution.The results showed that two distinct types of eutectically-formed constituent IMP’s exist the -Al(Mn,Fe)Si and theAl(Mn,Fe) phases. However, the exact chemical composition of the IMP’s varies with the particles size. Volta potentialdifference of surface constituents revealed that IMP’s have a higher Volta potential compared to the matrix, indicatingthe cathodic characteristic of the IMP’s. Noticeably, the boundary regions between the matrix and IMP’s exhibited aminimum Volta potential probably the sites for corrosion initiation. Localized corrosion attack monitored by in-situAFM clearly showed the trench formation occurrence around the large elongated IMP’s in the rolling direction.
Arash Yazdani, Mansour Soltanieh, Hossein Aghajani,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2009)

Abstract: In this research plasma nitriding of pure aluminium and effect of iron elemental alloy on the formation and growth of aluminium nitride was investigated. Also corrosion properties of formed AlN were investigated. After preparation, the samples were plasma nitrided at 550oC, for 6, 9 and 12 h and a gas mixture of 25%H2-75%N2. The microstructure and phases analysis were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Moreover corrosion resistance of samples was investigated using polarization techniques. The results showed that only a compound layer was formed on the surface of samples and no diffusion zone was detected. Dominant phase in compound layer was AlN. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that nitride layer has particulate structure. These nitrided particles have grown columnar and perpendicular to the surface. It was also observed that the existence of iron in the samples increases the nitrogen diffusion, thus growth rate of iron containing nitrides are higher than the others. Corrosion tests results showed that formation of an aluminium nitride layer on the surface of aluminium decreases the corrosion resistance of aluminium significantly. This is due to elimination of surface oxide layer and propagation of cracks in the formed nitride layer
A. m. Hadian, B. Nazari,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (8-2010)


Dolomite refractories have a good production potential in Iran due to the existence of high-quality dolomite ore in many regions of the country, particularly in Isfahan and Hamedan. The basic problem associated with the production and use of this type of refractories is inherent tendency to hydration of calcined dolomite. One of the methods to overcome this problem is to increase the amount of magnesia in doloma. This study focuses on the use of Iranian dolomite to produce magnesia –doloma (mag-dol) refractory with high resistance to hydration and corrosion. It was found that addition of 20wt% magnesite to dolomite would result in capsulating of CaO by MgO that protects doloma from further hydration
N. Eslami Rad*, Ch. Dehghanian,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (10-2010)

Abstract: Electroless Nickel (EN) composite coatings embedded with Cr2O3 and/or MoS2 particles were deposited to combine the characters of both Cr2O3 and MoS2 into one coating in this study. The effects of the co-deposited particles on corrosion behavior of the coating in 3.5% NaCl media were investigated. The results showed that both Ni-P and Ni-P composite coatings had significant improvement on corrosion resistance in comparison to the substrate. Codeposition of Cr2O3 in coating improved corrosion characteristic but co-deposition of MoS2 decreased corrosion resistance of the coating.
M. R. Zamanzad-Ghavidel,, K. Raeissi, A. Saatchi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Abstract: Nickel was electrodeposited onto copper substrates with high {111} and {400} peak intensities. The grain size of coatings deposited onto the copper substrate with a higher {111} peak intensity was finer. Spheroidized pyramid morphology was obtained at low current densities on both copper substrates. By increasing the deposition current density, grain size of the coating was increased for both substrates and eventually a mixed morphology of pyramids and blocks was appeared without further increase in grain size. This decreased the anodic exchange current density probably due to the decrease of surface roughness and led to a lower corrosion rate.
Dr Mohammad Reza Sarmasti Emami,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2012)

This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of the causes of corrosion of stack in a cement plant. In this paper, information related to metallic stack failures are given in the form of a case study in Neka Cement Plant, Mazandaran, Iran. Heavy corrosion attacks were observed on the samples of stack. The failure can be caused by one or more modes such as overheating, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), hydrogen embrittlement, creep, flame impingement, sulfide attack, weld attack, dew point corrosion, etc. Theoretical calculations and experimental observations revealed that, the corrosion had taken place due to the condensation of acidic flue gases in the interior of stack. Also, the chemical analysis of the corrosion deposits and condensates confirmed the presence of highly acidic environment consisting of mostly sulfate ions.
M. Vishnudevan,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2012)

Corrosion behavior of mild steel in chloride contaminated alkaline solution has been studied for the period up to 100days. Saturated Calcium hydroxide solution was used as alkaline solution and 0.5M NaCl solution was used to accelerate mild steel corrosion. The Charge transfer resistance Rct, Current density Icorr and inhibition efficiency values were obtained from tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic technique for sodium nitrite, sodium citrate and sodium benzoate mixed inhibitors. The results were compared with nitrite inhibitive system. The combination of nitrite inhibitor along with benzoate and citrate inhibitors enhanced the durability of mild steel through formation of nanosized -Fe2O3 film on steel suface even in presence of high chloride contamination. The results obtained from gravimetric method proved that the 100 days exposure of mild steel in nitrite with citrate, nitrite with citrate and benzoate mixed inhibitors showed the maximum inhibition efficiency of 98% in comparison with nitrite inhibitive system alone (41.5%). The maximum corrosion resistance performance of these mixed inhibitors system was due to the formation of thick layer of nano : Fe2O3 fibrous film on steel surface.
Sh. Shahriari, M. Ehteshamzadeh,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2013)

Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique was used to prepare ceramic coatings on the casted aluminum alloys containing ~5 and ~9.5 wt.% Mg. The applied voltage was controlled at 450V and 550V for evaluating the effect of this main parameter, as well as, magnesium content of the substrate on the microstructure and electrochemical corrosion behavior after PEO treating. The results of X-ray diffraction confirmed formation of galumina and MgSiO3. It was found that higher applied voltage caused fewer and minor discharge channels which led to higher corrosion resistance. Also, increasing of magnesium content of the substrate caused decreasing of polarization resistance, which could be associated to the formation of MgSiO3.
N. Bahremandi Tolou, M. H. Fathi, A. Monshi, V. S. Mortazavi,f. Shirani, M. Mohammadi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2013)

Abstract:In recent years, there have been many attempts to improve the properties of dental amalgam. The aim of the present investigation was fabrication and characterization of dental amalgams containing TiO2 nanoparticles and evaluation of their compressive strength, antibacterial and corrosion behavior. In this experimental research, TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) were added to reference amalgam alloy powder and then, dental amalgam was prepared. In order to investigate the effect of TiO2 NPs on properties of dental amalgam, 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 wt. % of TiO2 NPs were added to amalgam alloy powder and the prepared composite powder was triturated by a given percent of mercury. Xray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used to characterize the prepared specimens. Potentiodynamic polarization corrosion tests were performed in the Normal Saline (0.9 wt. % NaCl) Solutions as electrolytes at 37°C. The results showed that the corrosion behavior of the dental amalgam with 0.5 or 1 wt. % TiO2 NPs is similar to the corrosion behavior of the reference amalgam, while with increasing the weight percent of TiO2 NPs, the corrosion rate increases. Also, the results of this investigation indicated that adding TiO2 NPs in amounts of up to 1 wt. % to amalgam alloy powder improve compressive strength of dental amalgam and has no destructive influence on its corrosion behavior. As well as, according to antibacterial results, TiO2 NPs can increase the biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of dental amalgam. The results of present study suggest that amalgam/ TiO2 NPs nanocomposite with 1% of TiO2 NPs could be regarded as a biocompatible and bioactive dental material that provide better characters for dental applications.
Z. Shahri, S. R. Allahkaram,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2013)

Metal matrix nano composite coatings possess enhanced properties such as corrosion and wear resistance. This paper aims to study the corrosion behavior of pure Co and Co-BN nano composite coatings deposited with different particles concentration (5-20 g L-1) on copper substrates using electroplating technique. Morphology and elemental compositions of the coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The corrosion behavior was analyzed in a 3.5 wt% NaCl via polarization and impedance techniques. The results obtained in this study indicate that the co-deposition of BN nano particles improved corrosion resistance of electrodeposited cobalt coatings.

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