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Showing 10 results for X-Ray Diffraction

M. Zandrahimi, A. Rezvanifar,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

Abstract: Cold working performed before an aging treatment has a significant effect on size and amount of precipitate produced. This could be caused by the increase in defect density, such as vacancies and dislocations. In this research, the Al-Cu-Si alloy was solution-treated, wear-tested and then artificially aged for a period of 1–5 h. Changes in the amount of precipitate, in the lattice parameter of the matrix, and in the precipitates are measured by X-ray diffraction and then calculated.It was observed that performing a wear test before the aging treatment was done significantly increased the amount of precipitate, while wear rate decreased.
M. J. Tafreshi, B. Dibaie, M. Fazli,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

Abstract: A thermodynamic model was used to find out the optimum temperature for the growth of ZnS single crystals in closed ampoules by chemical vapor transport technique. Based on this model 1002 °C was found to be optimum temperature for 2 mg/cm3 concentration of transporting agent (iodine). ZnS Crystals were grown in optimum (1002 °C) and non-optimum (902 °C and 1102 °C) temperatures. The composition structure and microstructure of the grown crystals were studied by Atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy measurements. Properties of the grown crystals were correlated to the growth conditions especially a stability in mass transport along the closed tube length.
S Ahmadi, H. R. Shahverdi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2014)
Abstract

Achieving extreme hardness in the newly synthetic steel formed by converting from initial amorphous state to subse-quent crystalline structure –named as devitrification process- was studied in this research work. Results of TEM observa-tions and XRD tests showed that crystallized microstructure were made up four different nano-scale phases i.e., α-Fe, Fe 36 Cr12 Mo10 , Fe 3 C and Fe3 B. More, Vickers hardness testing revealed a maximum hardness of 18.6 GPa which is signifi-cantly harder than existing hardmetals. Detailed kinetic and structural studies have been proof that two key factors were contributed to achieve this extreme hardness supersaturation of transition metal alloying elements (especially Nb) and also reduction in the structure to the nano-size crystals.
S. Sagadevan, N. Nithya, R. Mahalakshmi,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

The study of amino acid based nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with optimum physical properties is an important area due to their practical applications such as optical communication, optical computing, optical information processing, optical disk data storage, laser fusion reactions, laser remote sensing, colour display, medical diagnostics, etc. Also, microelectronic industries require crystals which possess low dielectric constant at higher frequency. Keeping this in view, attempts have been made to grow nonlinear optical crystals and study their optical, electrical and mechanical properties. Nonlinear optical single crystals of dichloro-diglycine zinc II have been grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS-NIR spectrum, thermal, mechanical and dielectric studies. The results of characterization studies have been discussed in detail to understand their properties. The grown crystals have better thermal stability and sufficient mechanical strength. They are capable of inducing polarization due to dielectric behaviour when powerful laser beam is incident on them. The various characterization studies suggest that the grown crystals are promising materials for optoelectronic and nonlinear optical applications.

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R. Kumar, Y. Chandra Sharma, V. Vidya Sagar, D. Bhardwaj,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

In this study an effort has been made for the plasma ion nitriding (PIN) of Inconel 600 and 601 alloys at low temperatures. After plasma ion nitriding, microstructure study, growth kinetics of nitrided layer formation and wear properties were investigated by various characterization techniques such as; scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, micro-hardness measurement and wear test by pin on disk technique. It was found that, surface micro-hardness increases after PIN process. A mix peak of epsilon (ε) phase with fcc (γ) phase was detected for all temperature range (350 0C to 450 0C), while the chromium nitride (CrN) phase was detected at elevated temperature range ~450 0C in inconel 601 alloy. The calculated values of diffusion coefficient and activation energy for diffusion of nitrogen are in accordance with the literature. Volume loss and wear rate of the plasma nitrided samples decreases, but it increases as PIN process temperature increases.

Najwa Gouitaa, Lamcharfi Taj-Dine, Abdi Farid , Ahjyaje Fatima Zahra,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (9-2021)
Abstract

      In this study we have synthesis the Zr substituted BaTi0.80Fe0.20O3 ceramics at different content of Zr from x=0.00 to 0.10 by using the solid-state route. The room temperature X-ray diffraction results confirmed the coexistence of the two tetragonal and hexagonal phases for x ≤ 0.050 of Zr content. While above 0.050 the hexagonal phase disappears in benefit of tetragonal phase. The Raman results confirmed the formation of these phases obtained with XRD. The scanning electron micrographs consist of both spherical and straight grain forms for x=0.000 to 0.075, and only spherical grain form for x=0.100 attributed to the tetragonal phase. Also, the grain size increases accompanied with a decrease in density of ceramics with increasing Zr content up to 0.050 then decreases accompanied with an increase in density. Detailed studies of dielectric permittivity measurement have provided a presence of two anomalies Te and TR-O at different temperatures, with a relaxation phenomenon and diffuse behavior which is very important for ceramic at x=0.075 of Zr content. The dielectric permittivity values of the two anomalies of Zr substituted BaTi0.80Fe0.20O3 ceramics increase with increase of Zr content and the dielectric loss is minimal at x=0.100 of Zr content. The conductivity increases with the increasing of Zr substitution from 0.025 to 0.075 levels while for x = 0.100 the dielectric conductivity decreases.  And the Cole-Cole analysis indicates a negative thermal resistivity coefficient (NTCR) behavior of these materials and an ideal Debye-type behavior.

Nihel Hsouna, Mohsen Mhadhbi, Chaker Bouzidi,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (3-2022)
Abstract

Phosphate glass with different Al2O3 and Na2CO3 compositions [80NaH2PO4-(20-x) Na2CO3-xAl2O3 with a step from 0 to 4] were prepared through melt quenching technique furnace at 900 °C. In order to determine the structure and microstructure modification of the samples after heat treatment the IR and Raman spectroscopy were performed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows an amorphous character of the prepared glass. The result obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) reveals a good thermal stability in the temperature range of 25 to 400 °C. The impedance Nyquist diagrams were investigated and modeled by resistors and constant phase elements (CPE) equivalent circuits. These measurements show a non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. Both AC and DC conductivity, dielectric constant, and loss factors were determined. Thermal activation energies were also calculated. A changes in the electrical conductivity and activation energy depend upon the chemical composition were observed. Also, a transition in the conduction mechanism from ionic to mixed ionic polaronic was noted. In the same line, electrical modulus and dielectric loss parameters are also deduced. Their frequency and temperature dependency exhibited relaxation behavior. Likewise, activation energies value obtained from the analysis of M’’ and those obtained from the conductivity are closes, which proves the optimal character of the preparation conditions.

Puneeth Puneeth, Gangarekaluve J. Naveen, Vishwanath Koti, Nitrahalli D. Prasanna, Litton Bhandari, Javaregowda Satheesh, Parthasarathy Sampathkumara,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (3-2022)
Abstract

Hybrid composite finds wide application in various fields. In this present study, the hybrid composites are developed using stir casting technique as per Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Hybrid composites were fabricated using Aluminium Al6082 as the base material and reinforced with the combinations of reinforcements Al2SiO5 and B4C at three levels (4%, 8% and 12%).The developed composites were analyzed for micro structural  investigations and mechanical tests were done as per ASTM standards. The micro structural analysis was done using optical Microscope and Scanning electron microscope while composition studies were done using X-ray diffraction and EDAX. Mechanical test like tensile, impact and flexural were conducted and their damage assessment was done using Scanning electron microscope. The fatigue characteristics like high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation was studied both experimentally and numerically. The experimental data and numerical modeling analysis data obtained for the hybrid composite system, agree with each other.           
Ahabboud Malika, Najwa Gouitaa, Ahjyaje Fatimazahra, Lamcharfi Taj-Dine, Abdi Farid,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2023)
Abstract

In this paper, Pb1-xFex(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PFZT) nanopowders, with x from 0.00 up to 0.20, were synthesized by using the sol-gel method. The PFZT samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and impedance spectroscopy. According to the experimental results, PFZT combines rhombohedral and tetragonal symmetries for all the samples without a change in phase structure. The SEM investigation indicated that the grains are homogeneous with regular form and the average grain size of PFZT ceramics changed with Fe concentration. The dielectric characterizations show that the dielectric permittivity increases with increasing temperature, and the Fe amount shifts down the temperature of transition. Moreover, a dielectric resonance phenomenon is observed for all the PFZT ceramics.
Hassan Tarikhum, Basil A Abdullah, Furqan Almyahi, Mazin Mahdi,
Volume 20, Issue 2 (6-2023)
Abstract

In this study, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerene Indene-C60 multi-adducts (ICxA) were blended to create a formulation as a solution and thin films, which were prepared under ambient conditions. The optical properties of various compositional ratios were studied using UV-Visible absorbance and photoluminescence (Pl) measurements. The energy gaps of the prepared thin films and solutions were determined, and their values increased with increasing fullerene ratio because of the isolation of P3HT chains from their neighbors. Intensity ratio (IC=C/IC-C) with a small value in addition to a low value of full width at high maximum (FWHM) of Raman spectra are associated with increased conformation and high aggregation of composition. Furthermore, according to X-ray diffraction  (XRD) results the 1:0.8 and 1:0.6 ratios have the largest crystallite sizes in comparison to the other ratios. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels for blends by electrochemical measurements were determined, which are sandwiched between those of the pure materials. In ambient conditions, binary organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) at different ratios of the photoactive layer were evaluated. The device with a ratio of 1:0.6 had the best performance, with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.21 %, open circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.53 V, short circuit current density (JSC) of  5.71 mA.cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 39.5 % at a small Vloss of 1.39 V.

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