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Showing 10 results for Compressive

A. Allahverdi, E. Najafi Kani, S. Esmaeilpoor,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2008)

Abstract: The use of alkali-activated cementitious materials especially over the past decades has significantly been increased. The goal of this research is to investigate the effects of silica modulus and alkali concentration on alkali-activation of blast-furnace slag. In this research, the most important physical characteristics of cementitious systems, i.e. the 28-day compressive strength and final setting time, were studied by changing influencing parameters such as silica modulus, i.e. SiO2/Na2O, (0.44, 0.52, 0.60, and 0.68) and Na2O concentration (4, 6, 8 and 10% by weight of dry binder) at a constant water-to-dry binder ratio of 0.25. Final setting time of the studied systems varies in the range between 55-386 minutes. The obtained results show that systems cured at an atmosphere of more than 95% relative humidity at room temperature exhibit relatively high 28-day compressive strengths up to 107 MPa.
A. Allahverdi, E. Najafi Kani, M. Fazlinejhad,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2011)

Abstract: The linear expansion, early-age compressive strength and setting times of the binary mixtures of gypsum and Portland cement clinkers of relatively low C3A-contents were investigated. For this reason, type 1, 2, and 5 of Portland cement-clinkers were selected and a number of binary mixtures were designed. At relatively lower percentages of gypsum (about 5%), the early strength behavior is improved. Results obtained for compressive strength of mixtures with 5% gypsum confirm the possibility of achieving 28- and 90-day compressive strengths up to values higher than 100 MPa and 130 MPa, respectively. At relatively higher percentages of gypsum (more than 25%), excessive expansion caused by ettringite formation results in the formation of micro-cracks effectively weakening the strength behavior. The work suggests that type S expansive cements could be produced from Portland cement clinkers of relatively low C3Acontents.
M. A. Soleimani, R. Naghizadeh, A. R. Mirhabibi, F. Golestanifard ,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2012)

Metakaolinite-based geopolymer has been synthesized at about 25 °C from metakaolin which has been calcined in different temperatures (600-900 °C) and different Na2O/SiO2 ratio activator (0.3-1.1). Compressive strength and microstructure of cement pastes after 7-28 days curing at ambient temperature were measured. Compressive strength tests on the samples showed that the sample made with calcined kaolin at 700 °C and molar ratio of 0.6 has highest average compressive strength of 32 MPa after 28 days of curing. Evaluation of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and microstructure showed that geopolymer cement developed and new molecular structure established
N. Bahremandi Tolou, M. H. Fathi, A. Monshi, V. S. Mortazavi,f. Shirani, M. Mohammadi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2013)

Abstract:In recent years, there have been many attempts to improve the properties of dental amalgam. The aim of the present investigation was fabrication and characterization of dental amalgams containing TiO2 nanoparticles and evaluation of their compressive strength, antibacterial and corrosion behavior. In this experimental research, TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) were added to reference amalgam alloy powder and then, dental amalgam was prepared. In order to investigate the effect of TiO2 NPs on properties of dental amalgam, 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 wt. % of TiO2 NPs were added to amalgam alloy powder and the prepared composite powder was triturated by a given percent of mercury. Xray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used to characterize the prepared specimens. Potentiodynamic polarization corrosion tests were performed in the Normal Saline (0.9 wt. % NaCl) Solutions as electrolytes at 37°C. The results showed that the corrosion behavior of the dental amalgam with 0.5 or 1 wt. % TiO2 NPs is similar to the corrosion behavior of the reference amalgam, while with increasing the weight percent of TiO2 NPs, the corrosion rate increases. Also, the results of this investigation indicated that adding TiO2 NPs in amounts of up to 1 wt. % to amalgam alloy powder improve compressive strength of dental amalgam and has no destructive influence on its corrosion behavior. As well as, according to antibacterial results, TiO2 NPs can increase the biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of dental amalgam. The results of present study suggest that amalgam/ TiO2 NPs nanocomposite with 1% of TiO2 NPs could be regarded as a biocompatible and bioactive dental material that provide better characters for dental applications.
H. Nosraty, M. Tehrani-Dehkordi, M. M. Shokrieh, G. Minak,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2015)

In this study, the tensile and compressive behaviors of pure and hybrid composite laminates reinforced by basalt–nylon bi-woven intra-ply fabrics were experimentally investigated. Epoxy resin was used as the matrix material. The purpose of using this hybrid composite is to obtain superior characteristics by using the good strength property of basalt fiber with the excellent toughness of nylon fiber. Five different types of woven fabric were used as reinforcement with different volume percentages of nylon (0%, 25%, 33.3%, 50% and 100%). The effects of nylon/basalt fiber content on tensile and compressive parameters were studied. In addition, the after failure visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to determine the extent and type of damage on tested specimens. The results indicate that the tensile and compressive performances of these composites are strongly affected by the nylon/basalt fiber content. Also, with a proper choice of fiber content, the nylon/basalt hybrid composites can achieve mechanical properties comparable with the pure ones. The stress–strain curves, after failure visual inspection and SEM analysis of tested specimens reveal that hybridization can prevent catastrophic and complete failure. In hybrid composites, the basalt and nylon fibers cannot reach their maximum strength at the same time and the progressive failure of the various fibers therefore occurred
E. Najafi Kani, M. Nejan, A. Allahverdi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2016)

This article addresses the interplay between heat of hydration and physico-mechanical properties of calcium sulfate hemi-hydrate in the presence of retarding additives such as citric and malic acids and sodium citrate. The heat of hydration was measured using a semi-isothermal calorimeter. Results proved that citric and malic acids had superior impact on hydration and mechanical properties. While the concentration of additives was increasing, the maximum heat of hydration was decreasing from 56.15 cal/g.min for blank sample to 33 cal/g.min for high concentrations of citric and malic acids. Consequently, the measured time to this maximum heat of hydration and thus the induction period were increased significantly from 5 to 105 min. Mechanical results indicated that the increase in the amounts of additive led to the reduction of the compressive strength from 16.25 MPa in the blank sample up to 74% for the highest concentration of malic acid

A. Rashad,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (6-2018)

In the current work, the properties of cement pastes doped with high amounts of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (HVS) were investigated. Portland cement (PC) was substituted with ground granulated blast-furnace slag (donated as slag) at very high amounts of 85%, 90%, 95% and 100%, by weight. PC paste without any content of slag was used as a reference. Some fresh and hardened properties such as workability, density, compressive strength up to 56 days, pH value and drying shrinkage up to 200 days were measured. The various phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The microstructure of the formed hydration products was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that HVS has higher workability and higher drying shrinkage beyond 60 days. On the other hand, HVS has lower pH, density and compressive strength.

A. Allahverdi, Z. Padar, M. Mahinroosta,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (6-2019)

It is demonstrated that the addition of organo-modified Na-bentonite (OMB) particles to Portland cement mortar can promote its physical and mechanical properties. A series of experimental works on some important physico-mechanical properties of Portland cement mortars mixed with various dosages of hydrophobic OMB were performed. The obtained results confirm that the OMB provides a dense packing effect. An optimum replacement level of around 3.5% (by weight) at an increased water-to-cement ratio of 0.53 results in an almost 11.43% increase in 28-day compressive strength along with about 20.78 and 16.20% reductions in total volume of permeable pore space and water absorption, respectively. Also, at the optimum replacement level, an increase of about 2.72% is taken place in dry bulk specific gravity.

A. Allahverdi, H. Hashemi, M. Mahinroosta,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (3-2020)

This work evaluates the resistance of alkali-activated slag (AAS) mortar against sodium sulfate attack. The effects of immersion in 5% sodium sulfate solution under room temperature and wetting-drying cycles on the compressive strength of mortar specimens were considered for evaluating the extent of degradation. Mortar specimens prepared from type II and V Portland cements (PC2 and PC5) in accordance with ASTM standard were also used as reference. To characterize the chemical products of the degradation process due to sodium sulfate attack, the specimens were also studied by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. After 360 days of exposure to the sodium sulfate solution, PC2, PC5 and AAS cements showed 71, 52 and 45% reduction in compressive strength, respectively. According to the obtained results, AAS cement exhibits a higher sulfate resistance compared to PC2 and PC5.

Jafar Shafaghat, Ali Allahverdi,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (3-2021)

Microscopic studies has shown that adjacent to the interface between cement paste and aggregate, there exists an area with high porosity and low binding compounds that is referred to as interfacial transition zone (ITZ). ITZ in concrete and mortar imposes a number of negative effects, including flexural and compressive strengths reduction and permeability enhancement. That’s why many research attempts have been devoted to limit ITZ and its negative effects. The present study investigates the possibility of utilizing fine Portland cement (PC) clinker as a reactive aggregate in mortar for the same purpose. For this, natural quartz sand in normal mortar (NM) was totally replaced with PC clinker of the same particle size distribution and the most important engineering properties of the new mortar referred to as Reactive Aggregate Mortar (RAM) were measured and compared with NM as control. The results of compressive strengths measurements represented 65% and 21% increases at curing ages of 7 and 90 days, respectively, for RAM compared to NM. Chloride penetration depth in RAM displayed reductions by about 33% and 26% after 14 and 28 days of exposure, respectively. The effect of PC clinker reactivity on the microstructure and size of ITZ was studied by using scanning electron microscopy.

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