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Showing 10 results for Activation Energy

Bafghi M. Sh., Adeli M., Mohammadi Nikoo H.,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2004)

Two commercial methods are used for the production of strontium carbonate:1) Direct conversion of Celsetite to strontium carbonate by hot sodium carbonate,2) Carbothermic reduction of celestite with coal followed by water leaching of strontium sulfide(SrS) and its conversion to strontium carbonate.The present study has been made on the carbothermic reduction of celestite ores of Varamin (Iran) mines. Effects of temperature, time, pellet size, particle size of celestite ore, pellet compactness and type of reducing agent have been studied. In the range of 800-1100°C, reduction rate increases notably with temperature, which may mean that the reduction is predominantly chemical controlled. Activation energy of around 22.5 kcal/mol supports the idea of chemical control mechanism. Further support for this postulation is provided by the following facts:1) Increasing rate with carbon reactivity (graphite, coal, and charcoal)2) Small dependency of rate on pellet compactness.3) Small dependency of rate on pellet size
A. Ataie1,, S. Heshmati-Manesh1,, S. Sheibani1,, G. R. Khayati,y. Firozbakht,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2008)

Abstract: In this paper solid state reduction of high carbon ferrochromium-chromite composite pellets in the temperature range of 900-1350°C was investigated. A two stage reduction mechanism is proposed. The first stage is likely to be controlled by the chemical reaction with activation energy of 127.2kJ/mol. In the second stage, solid state diffusion of carbon through the reaction product layer is suggested to be rate controlling. The activation energy of this stage was calculated to be 93.1kJ/mol. The reduction process was found to be favored by high temperatures as well as high vacuum. The results also show that pre-milling of initial mixture has a negative effect on the reduction degree.
A. Shokuhfar, S. Ahmadi, H. Arabi, S. Nouri,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2009)

Abstract: Guinier-Preston (GP) zone formation and precipitation behavior of T1 (Al2CuLi) phase during the ageingof an Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloy was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique and electrical resistancemeasurement of the samples. Results show that endothermic effects in the thermograms of the alloy between 180°Cand 240°C can be related to the enthalpy of GPzones dissolution. Formation of GPzones in the structure increasedhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistance of the Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloy. Furthermore, precipitation of T1 phaseoccurred in temperature range of 250ºC to 300ºC whereas its dissolution occurred within the temperature of 450-530ºC. Activation energies for precipitation and dissolution of T1 phase which were determined for the first time inthis research, were 122.1(kJ/mol) and 130.3(kJ/mol) respectively. Results of electrical resistance measurementsshowed that an increase in the aging time resulted in the reduction of electrical resistance of the aged samples.
R. Khoshhal, M. Soltanieh, M. Mirjalili,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2010)


titanium sheets in pure molten aluminum at 750

and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis results, TiAl

intermetallic layer thickness increases slowly at primary stages. After that an enhanced growth rate occurs due to layer

cracking and disruption. Presumably, reaction starts with solving titanium into the molten aluminum causing in

titanium super saturation and TiAl

intermetallic layer which consequently leads to TiAl

energy of intermetallic layer formation and growth was developed by measuring titanium thickness decreases.

In this work, kinetics of intermetallic compounds formation in Al-Ti system was studied by immersingoC, 850 oC and 950 oC. According to Scanning Electron Microscopy3 is the only phase can form at the interface. Observations revealed that3 formation. At this stage, growth may be controlled by aluminum diffusion through3 formation at the interface of Ti-TiAl3. Furthermore, activation

M. Sh. Bafghi, A. Yarahmadi, A. Ahmadi, H. Mehrjoo,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2011)


the reduction agent. Pellets of barite ore containing about 95% BaSO

temperature, time, ore grain size and the type and grain size of the carbon materials. Graphite, coke and charcoal have

been used as the reducing agent and the reduction experiments have been performed in the temperature range of 925-

1150 °C. Apart from conducting the experiments using pellets made of ore powder, kinetic analysis of the experimental

data by use of the reduced (dimensionless) time method has been another unique feature of the present study.

Experimental results show that grain size of either carbon material or barite ore has not appreciable effect on the

reaction rate. Kinetic analysis of the experimental data revealed the rate is strongly controlled by the chemical reaction

of carbon gasification (Boudouard reaction). The reaction rate is very considerably related to the type of carbon

material so that the activation energy varies from 15.6 kcal.mol



The present study deals with the reduction of barium sulfate (Barite) to barium sulfide by use of carbon as4 has been reduced under different conditions of-1 for charcoal to 26.3 kcal.mol-1 for graphite and 20.8-1 for coke. This behavior provides further support for the postulated reaction mechanism, i.e., carbon
M. S. Kaiser,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2013)

Precipitation behaviour of wrought Al-6Mg alloys with ternary scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium has been studied. Hardness measurements and resistivity studies are employed to assess the precipitation behaviour of scandium doped Al-6Mg alloy without or with quaternary additions of zirconium and titanium. Further, the kinetics of precipitations are studied by differential scanning calorimetric technique. Scandium has been observed to form fine coherent Al3Sc precipitates during ageing and these are responsible for strengthening of the alloys. The precipitation kinetics of Al3Sc depends on the diffusion of scandium in aluminium. Presence of fine coherent precipitates of Al3Sc impedes the migration of dislocations and increase the recovery temperature. The kinetics of recrystallisation is also delayed.
A. R. Abbasian, M. R. Rahimipour, Z. Hamnabard,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (12-2019)

In this work, lithium meta titanate (Li2TiO3) nanocrystallites were synthesized by hydrothermal method and subsequent heat treatment. The shrinkage of the powder compact was measured under constant heating rate in order to study the sintering behavior of the synthesized powders. Densification curves of the synthesized powders were also constructed via the dilatometry analysis and evaluated at several heating rates. Two separate methods of analytical procedure and master curve sintering were employed to determine the activation energy of the initial sintering stage. The activation energy values were estimated based on these two distinct methods as 229±14 and 230 kJ/mol respectively, consistenting with each other. Moreover, surface diffusion was determined as the dominant mechanism of densification on initial sintering of Li2TiO3 nanocrystallites.
Nihel Hsouna, Mohsen Mhadhbi, Chaker Bouzidi,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Phosphate glass with different Al2O3 and Na2CO3 compositions [80NaH2PO4-(20-x) Na2CO3-xAl2O3 with a step from 0 to 4] were prepared through melt quenching technique furnace at 900 °C. In order to determine the structure and microstructure modification of the samples after heat treatment the IR and Raman spectroscopy were performed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows an amorphous character of the prepared glass. The result obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) reveals a good thermal stability in the temperature range of 25 to 400 °C. The impedance Nyquist diagrams were investigated and modeled by resistors and constant phase elements (CPE) equivalent circuits. These measurements show a non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. Both AC and DC conductivity, dielectric constant, and loss factors were determined. Thermal activation energies were also calculated. A changes in the electrical conductivity and activation energy depend upon the chemical composition were observed. Also, a transition in the conduction mechanism from ionic to mixed ionic polaronic was noted. In the same line, electrical modulus and dielectric loss parameters are also deduced. Their frequency and temperature dependency exhibited relaxation behavior. Likewise, activation energies value obtained from the analysis of M’’ and those obtained from the conductivity are closes, which proves the optimal character of the preparation conditions.

Sonali Wagh, Umesh Tupe, Anil Patil, Arun Patil,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (12-2022)

Temperature is one of the key factor that affecting the electrical, physical, structural, and morphological properties as well as the crystallinity of the nanomaterials. The current study investigates the effect of annealing temperature on the structural and electrical properties of lanthanum oxide (La2O3) thick films. La2O3 thick films were prepared on a glass substrate using a conventional screen printing technique. In this work, T1 is an unannealed prepared film, whereas T2 and T3 are annealed in a muffle furnace for 3 hours at 350°C and 450°C, respectively. XRD technique was exploited to investigate the crystallization behavior of the films. It was found that the crystal structure of La2O3 thick films are pure hexagonal phase. The annealing temperatures were revealed to have influence on the crystallite sizes of the films. SEM and EDS was used to study the morphology and elemental analysis of the films respectively. The electrical properties of the films were explored by measuring resistivity, temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR), and activation energy at lower and higher temperatures regions. The film annealed at 450°C has high resistivity, a high TCR, and small crystallite size. The thickness of the La2O3 thick films was also found to decrease as the annealing temperature increased.
Bijan Eftekhari Yekta, Omid Banapour Ghafari,
Volume 20, Issue 4 (12-2023)

Glasses in the B2O3-Li2 (O, Cl2, I2) system were prepared through the conventional melt-quenching method. Then, the conductivity of the molten and glassy states of these compositions was evaluated. Furthermore, the thermal and crystallization behavior of the glasses was determined using simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The electrical conductivity of the melts was measured at temperatures ranging from 863 to 973 K, and the activation energy of the samples was calculated using the data obtained from ion conduction in the molten state and found to be in the vicinity of 32 kcal/mol. In glassy states, electrical conductivity was also measured. To determine this property, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method (EIS) was used. In the molten state, temperature played an important role in the ion conductivity; however, at lower temperatures, other factors became important. Based on the results, the addition of LiI and LiCl to the B2O3-Li2O base glass system (75 B2O3, 10 Li2O, 7.5 LiI, 7.5 LiCl) (mol%) increases the ionic conductivity of the glass from 3.2 10-8 to 1.4 10-7 at 300 K.

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