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Showing 20 results for Subject: Casting and Solidification

Abdullah Alswata, Shaimaa Ali, Fares Alshorifi,
Volume 19, Issue 3 (9-2022)
Abstract

ABSTRACT
In this paper, novel Nanohybrid CuO-Fe3O4/Zeolite nanocomposites (HCFZ NCs) have been synthesized to improve the adsorption capacity and activity for removing the Arsenic and Lead cations from the contaminated water solutions. The nanohybrid 4, 10, and 20 -HCFZ NC samples were investigated by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, FESEM, EDX, and BET. The characterization results of these catalysts confirmed the presence of CuO and Fe3O4 NPs in nanospherical shapes as Nanohybrid Cu and Fe oxides on the zeolite surface. Notably, the 10-HCFZ NC sample showed the highest removal efficiency of harmful metallic pollutants from the water in comparison to the prepared neat zeolite, 4-HCFZ NC, and 20-HCFZ NC samples, with a percentage removal of (97.9 %) for Pb ions and (93.5 %) for As ions within 30 minutes (100 ppm). According to the adsorption isotherms results, R2 values for the Langmuir isotherm were the highest, suggesting that the experimental results fit better the Langmuir isotherm model. Generally, according to the obtained results, there is a possibility of enhancing the efficiency of Nanohybrid CuO-Fe3O4/Zeolite NCs to remove Arsenic and Lead ions from polluted aqueous solutions.
 


Abdur Rahman, Serajul Haque,
Volume 19, Issue 3 (9-2022)
Abstract

The effect of the milling time & ageing on the hardness, density, and wear characteristics of Al 7150 alloy specimens made via powder metallurgy has been studied. The different constituents of Al 7150 alloy were processed in a planetary ball milling set up with a BPR of 10:1 for 5 hours, 10 hours, and 20 hours. At 400 °C, the milled powders were subsequently hot compacted in a punch die setup. The hot-pressed specimens were solutionized initially, then aged artificially at 115 °C for 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 45, 60, and 96 hours. The relative density was inversely proportional to the milling time. Microhardness tests showed a maximum VHN of 255 was measured for the 24 h aged T6 specimens produced from 20 h milled powders whereas the non-aged specimens, made from unmilled 7150 alloy powders showed a VHN of 40. However the samples showed a decline in microhardness beyond 24 h of ageing. Under various conditions of sliding distance and loading conditions, the samples subjected to T6 aging showed a reduced volumetric wear rate indicating the beneficial effect of artificial aging up to 24 hours. The volumetric wear rate gradually declined for the samples aged beyond 24 hours of aging. The HRTEM studies revealed a high density of uniformly scattered (MgZn2) precipitates in the base matrix, as well as (MgZn2) phases precipitating along grain boundaries. The presence of such second phase precipitates in the matrix improved the wear characteristics of the alloy matrix. The results showed that optimization of process parameters such as milling time, ageing as well as reducing the particle size of the base powders, the hardness and wear behavior of Al 7150 alloy may be improved.
Sreedevi Gogula, Sandhya Cole, Venkata Rao Kanakala, Gogula Jaya Ram Pavan Kumar, B Tirumala Rao,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (12-2022)
Abstract

The present study used a hydrothermal technique to synthesize undoped and Mn2+ doped CdS/Zn3(PO4)2 semiconducting nanocomposite materials. Powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer, Fourier transform-Infrared Spectroscopy-FT-IR, and photoluminescence techniques were employed to study structural, optical, and luminescence properties of produced nanocomposites. The hexagonal structure of CdS and the monoclinic structure of Zn3(PO4)2 are both reflected in the powder X-ray diffraction spectra. When Mn2+ ions are present in the host lattice, a lattice distortion occurs, causing a phase change from the phase of γ-Zn3(PO4)2 to the β-phase of Zn3(PO4)2, without affecting the hexagonal phase of CdS. The average crystallite size of produced nanocomposites was 22-25 nm, and also calculated the lattice strain and dislocation density to better understand internal deformation of the samples. The FT-IR spectra were used to investigate the molecular vibrations and functional groups in the samples. The surface morphology of the nanocomposites is hexagonal spheres on rectangular shaped nano-flakes, and the interatomic distance between the hexagonal spheres is decreased as the doping concentration increases, forming a rod-like structure on the flakes. EDAX results confirm the presence of various relevant elements in the prepared samples. The quantum confinement of produced samples reduces as the Mn2+ doping concentration in the host lattice increases. The photoluminescence results demonstrate shallow trapped states due to the transition: d-d (4T1 → 6A1) of the tetrahedrally coordinated Mn2+ states and the impact of Mn2+ ions exhibiting several peaks in the UV-Visible region (365-634 nm) generating RGB (Red, Green, Blue) luminescence. Color coordinates and CCT values were calculated using the CIE diagram, and color correlated temperatures in the range of 2513–7307 K were discovered, which might be used in solid state lighting applications.
Imtiaz Ali Soomro, Srinivasa Rao Pedapati, Mokhtar Awang, Afzal Ahmed Soomro, Mohammad Azad Alam, Bilawal Ahmed Bhayo,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (12-2022)
Abstract

This paper investigated the optimization, modelling and effect of welding parameters on the tensile shear load bearing capacity of double pulse resistance spot welded DP590 steel. Optimization of  welding parameters was performed using the Taguchi design of experiment method. A relationship between input welding paramaters i.e., second pulse welding current, second pulse welding current time and first pulse holding time and output response i.e, tensile shear peak load was established using regression and neural network. Results showed that maximum average tensile shear peak load of 26.47 was achieved at optimum welding parameters i.e., second pulse welding current of 7.5 kA, second pulse welding time of 560 ms and first pulse holding time of 400 ms. It was also found that the ANN model predicted the tensile shear load with higher accuracy than the regression model.
Sonali Wagh, Umesh Tupe, Anil Patil, Arun Patil,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (12-2022)
Abstract

Temperature is one of the key factor that affecting the electrical, physical, structural, and morphological properties as well as the crystallinity of the nanomaterials. The current study investigates the effect of annealing temperature on the structural and electrical properties of lanthanum oxide (La2O3) thick films. La2O3 thick films were prepared on a glass substrate using a conventional screen printing technique. In this work, T1 is an unannealed prepared film, whereas T2 and T3 are annealed in a muffle furnace for 3 hours at 350°C and 450°C, respectively. XRD technique was exploited to investigate the crystallization behavior of the films. It was found that the crystal structure of La2O3 thick films are pure hexagonal phase. The annealing temperatures were revealed to have influence on the crystallite sizes of the films. SEM and EDS was used to study the morphology and elemental analysis of the films respectively. The electrical properties of the films were explored by measuring resistivity, temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR), and activation energy at lower and higher temperatures regions. The film annealed at 450°C has high resistivity, a high TCR, and small crystallite size. The thickness of the La2O3 thick films was also found to decrease as the annealing temperature increased.
Nur Mohammad Hosseini, Zahra Bahri, Asghar Azizi,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (12-2022)
Abstract

The beneficiation of coal tailings is usually difficult by common oily collectors in the flotation process, so
it is necessary to use a suitable method for clean coal recovery from coal tailing dams. Thus, this study was aimed
to investigate the behavior of dissolved air flotation by zero prewetting time for the clean coal recovery and to
optimize the conditions of zero prewetting time for an effective flotation. In this regards, the effects of the process
parameters, i.e., pH, frother type, collector type on the rougher flotation recovery of coal tailings were assessed and
optimized. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to understand the functional
groups of oily collectors on the surface of floated products. The findings indicated that the frother type and the
interactive effects between the type of frother and collector had the most effect on the performance of flotation. It
was also found that under the optimal conditions (150 g/t Methyl isobutyl carbinol, 1500 g/t gas oil, and pH 4), the
combustible recovery, yield reduction factor, and flotation efficiency index of coal reached to 67.79%, 0.056%, and
37%, respectively. Meanwhile, the FTIR analysis confirmed that the less adsorption of gas oil collector occurred in
the presence of SDS (Sodium dodecyl sulfate) as frother due to the interaction of SDS and collectors
Nadjet Aklouche, Mosbah Ammar,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2023)
Abstract

This work aims to prepare and study amorphous carbon nitride (CNx) films. Films were deposited by reactive magnetron radiofrequency (RF) sputtering from graphite target in argon and nitrogen mixture discharge at room temperature. The ratio of the gas flow rate was varied from 0.1 to 1. Deposited films were found to be amorphous. Highest Nitrogen concentration achieved was 42 atomic percent which is very rare and therefore, the highest nitrogen to carbon atomic ratio was 0.76. The incorporation of nitrogen promotes the clustering of diamond-like sites at the expense of graphitic ones leading to the decrease of the disorder. The film surface becomes rough with increasing nitrogen concentration. Films are optically transparent in the 200-900 nm wavelength range with a wide gap varying between 3.59 and 3.63 eV. There is an increase in resistivity from 15 to 87.4 x10-3Ω.cm for a-CNx thin films for 0.1< RF < 0.8 and a less decrease for   RF > 0.8. Pore size increases in the films, but has little influence on band gaps. On the other hand, increasing the pore size reduces electrical interaction between particles by increasing resistivity.
Mohammad Abankar, Hossein Arabi, Mohammad Taghi Salehi, Majid Abbasi,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2023)
Abstract

The aims of this research were to evaluate the effects of different thermomechanical treatments on the microstructure and investigate some of the mechanical properties of a TWIP steel rich in Mn & Al. So, a block of a TWIP steel with nominal composition Fe-17.5Mn-1.36Al-0.8C was cast and then subjected to hot rolling followed by cold rolling and heat treatment. Cold rolling was performed before heat treatment in order to reduce the grain size and improve the tensile and fatigue properties. X-ray diffraction technique was used before and after the heat treatment to evaluate the possibility of any phase formation. No sign of martensitic transformation after cold deformation was observed. However, by increasing the amount of cold deformation, the number of mechanical twins and slip band increased resulted to an increase in hardness and strength. The best tensile and fatigue result were obtained after 47% thickness reduction and annealing at 715˚C for 10 min. Under these conditions, the mean grain size reduced from 138 to 9 μm resulted to an increase in yield strength from 395 to 510 MPa, and the fatigue life improvement from the mean life of 10200 for the cast sample to 21500 cycles for the treated sample, when these samples underwent fatigue tests at a stress range of 650 MPa and R=0. In addition, the diameter and depth of dimples in fracture surfaces decreased by reducing the grain size but the fracture mode was remained ductile and adequate plastic deformation occurred before failure.
 
Chouchane Toufik, Sana Chibani, Ouahida Khireddine, Atmane Boukari,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2023)
Abstract

In this work, blast furnace slag (BFS) was used as an adsorbent material for the removal of Pb(II) ions in solution in batch mode. The physico-chemical analyzes used indicated that the BFS is essentially composed of silica, lime, and alumina. Its specific surface area corresponds to 275.8m2/g and its PZC is around 3.8.
The adsorption study indicated that the maximum amount of Pb(II) adsorbed under optimum conditions (agitation speed (Vag): 150rpm; pH: 5.4; particle size (Øs): 300µm, T: 20°C) is 34.26mg/g after 50 minutes of agitation, and adsorption yield is best for feeble initial concentrations. The most appropriate isothermal model was that of Langmuir, and the adsorption speed was better characterized by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The adsorption mechanism revealed that internal diffusion is not the only mechanism that controls the adsorption process; there is also external diffusion, which contributes enormously in the transfer of Pb(II) from solution to adsorbent. Thermodynamic study indicated that the Pb(II) adsorption on the blast furnace slag (BFS) was spontaneous, exothermic, and that the adsorbed Pb(II) is more ordered at the surface of the adsorbent. Finally, we estimate that BFS is a superb adsorbent for water containing Pb(II).
 
Behzad Rahimzadeh, Maisam Jalaly, Mehrdad Roshan,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2023)
Abstract

Considering the widespread use of aluminum composites in various industries and the emergence of nanomaterials such as graphene and boron nitrite (BN) with their unique properties, aluminum-based nanocomposite reinforced by the graphene-BN hybrid was fabricated at different percentages. For this purpose, the graphene-BN hybrid was prepared and subjected to wet milling along with the aluminum powder. The mechanical properties of the final nanocomposite which was consolidated using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method were examined. Aluminum-based composite specimens containing 1 wt.% graphene0 wt.% BN (AGB1), 0.95 wt.% graphene0.05 wt.% BN (AGB2), 0.90 wt.% graphene0.1 wt.% BN (AGB3), and 0.85 wt.% graphene0.15 wt.% BN (AGB4) were fabricated and compared with non-reinforced aluminum (AGB0). The hardness values of 48.1, 51.1, 56.2, 54.1, and 43.6 Hv were obtained for AGB0, AGB1, AGB2, AGB3, and AGB4, respectively. Additionally, tensile strengths of these specimens were 67.2, 102.1, 129.5, 123.7, and 114.7 MPa, respectively. According to the results of the hardness and tensile tests, it was revealed that the AGB2 specimen had the highest tensile strength (93% higher than AGB0 and 27% higher than AGB1) and hardness (17% higher than AGB0 and 10% higher than AGB1).
Sandeep Ramasamy Periasamy, Vaira Vignesh Ramalingam, Ajay Vijayakumar, Harieharran Senthilkumaran, Vyomateja Sajja, Padmanaban Ramasamy, Samuel Ratna Kumar Kumar Paul Sureshkumar ,
Volume 20, Issue 2 (6-2023)
Abstract

Novelty: Most of the open literature research has focused on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of AA2050 alloy. Also, a significant study discusses the corrosion behavior of AA2050 alloy based on immersion and electrochemical characteristics. The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir processed AA2050 alloy is scarcely discussed in the open literature. The hot salt corrosion characteristics of friction stir processed AA2050 seldom exists in the available literature. This study concentrates on microhardness, tensile strength, and corrosion properties of friction stir processed AA2050. Also, the work focuses on the influence of artificial aging on the microhardness, and tensile strength of the friction stir processed AA2050.

 
Aqeel Mohammed Hamoudi, Karim Choubani, Mohamed Ben Rabha,
Volume 20, Issue 2 (6-2023)
Abstract

In this work, we demonstrate the beneficial effect of introducing a superficial porous silicon layer on the electronic quality of multi-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic cell application. The porous silicon was formed using an acid vapor etching-based method. The porous silicon layer rich in hydrogen and oxygen formed by vapor etching is an excellent passivating agent for the mc-Si surface. Laser beam-induced current (LBIC) analysis of the exponentiation parameter (n) and surface current mapping demonstrates that oxygen and hydrogen-rich porous silicon led to excellent surface passivation with a strong electronic quality improvement of multi-crystalline silicon.  It was found that the generated current of treated silicon by acid vapor etching-based method is 20 times greater as compared to the reference substrate, owing to recombination centers passivation of the grains and grain boundaries (GBs); The actual study revealed an apparent decrease in the recombination velocity of the minority carrier as reflected by 25% decrease in the exponentiation parameter (n) of the LBIC versus X-position measurements. These results make achieved porous silicon a good option for advancing efficient photovoltaic cells. 
 
Mohammad Jafar Molaei,
Volume 20, Issue 2 (6-2023)
Abstract

The introduction of the 2D materials in recent years has resulted in an emerging type of the constructed structures called van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) that take advantage of the 2D materials in forming atomically thin components and devices. The vdWHs are constructed by the stacking of 2D materials by van der Waals interactions or edge covalent boning. The electron orbitals of the 2D layers in vdWHs extend to each other and influence the electronic band structures of the constituent layers. The tunable optical response over a wide range of the wavelengths (NIR to visible) can be obtained by assembling vdWHs through combining of the monolayers. By application of 2D layers in vdWHs, p-n heterojunctions without lattice mismatch can be formed. The photodiodes based on the van der Waals interactions could be considered as promising candidates for future optoelectronic devices. Furthermore, on-chip quantum optoelectronics can move to the next generation by using 2D materials in vdWHs. In this review, the vdWHs are introduced and their properties and applications in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been discussed. The vdWHs allow bandgap engineering, and hence, LEDs working in a range of the wavelengths can be realized. The applications of vdWHs in forming atomically thin components in optoelectronic devices and LEDs have been addressed.
 
Mohammad Molaahmadi, Majid Tavoosi, Ali Ghasemi, Gholam Reza Gordani,
Volume 20, Issue 2 (6-2023)
Abstract

Investigation the structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co78Zr17B2Si1W2 alloy during melt spinning and annealing processes were the main goal of this study. In this regard, samples were prepared using vacuum induction melting, melt spinning and subsequent annealing. The specimens were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Based on results, nanocrystalline Co5Zr single phase with hard magnetic properties (Ms=29.5 emu/g and Hc=2.7 kOe) successfully formed during melt spinning process (at wheel speed of 40 m.s-1). The coercivity value of rapid solidified sample increased to about 3.2 kOe during annealing process up to 400°C. However, more increasing in annealing temperature lead to the transformation of non-equilibrium magnetic Co5Zr phase to stable Zr2Co11 phase, which has distractive effects on final magnetic properties.
 
Hassan Tarikhum, Basil A Abdullah, Furqan Almyahi, Mazin Mahdi,
Volume 20, Issue 2 (6-2023)
Abstract

In this study, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerene Indene-C60 multi-adducts (ICxA) were blended to create a formulation as a solution and thin films, which were prepared under ambient conditions. The optical properties of various compositional ratios were studied using UV-Visible absorbance and photoluminescence (Pl) measurements. The energy gaps of the prepared thin films and solutions were determined, and their values increased with increasing fullerene ratio because of the isolation of P3HT chains from their neighbors. Intensity ratio (IC=C/IC-C) with a small value in addition to a low value of full width at high maximum (FWHM) of Raman spectra are associated with increased conformation and high aggregation of composition. Furthermore, according to X-ray diffraction  (XRD) results the 1:0.8 and 1:0.6 ratios have the largest crystallite sizes in comparison to the other ratios. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels for blends by electrochemical measurements were determined, which are sandwiched between those of the pure materials. In ambient conditions, binary organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) at different ratios of the photoactive layer were evaluated. The device with a ratio of 1:0.6 had the best performance, with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.21 %, open circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.53 V, short circuit current density (JSC) of  5.71 mA.cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 39.5 % at a small Vloss of 1.39 V.
Husna Hanifa, Eka Cahya Prima, Andhy Setiawan, Endi Suhendi, Brian Yuliarto,
Volume 20, Issue 3 (9-2023)
Abstract

In the third generation of solar cells, cheaper absorbent layers such as Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) have been developed with specifications similar to Cu2InGaS4 (CIGS). This CZTS material is known as a material with good structural and optical properties where the CZTS material has a series of atoms bonded to each other to form a kesterite or stannite crystal arrangement. In its use as an absorbent layer for solar cells, CZTS material is synthesized using the electrochemical deposition method. In this electrochemical deposition technique, an electrical circuit will be connected to the electrode and inserted into the electrolyte. Several voltage variations from 1 volt to 5 volts will be applied to the electrical circuit, which will then trigger ions from the precipitating material in the electrolyte to stick to one of the electrodes. Variation of deposition voltage was carried out to determine the effect of deposition stress on the electrochemical deposition method on the characteristics of the CZTS absorbent layer. The characterizations used are X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis Spectrometry, and I-V meter. XRD results show that the resulting crystal size is getting smaller with greater deposition voltage around 6.07 - 7.27 nm. The optical absorption results show that the CZTS absorber layer is sensitive at low wavelengths around 300 – 480 m,, with Light Harvesting Efficiency (LHE) ranging from 13.3 - 24.75%. The band gap energy values obtained ranged from 1.4 to 1.48 eV. The cell efficiency test results show an excellent efficiency value according to the reference ranges from 2.56-8.77%. These results indicate that the deposition voltage affects the characteristics of the CZTS absorbent layer for solar cell applications.
Lakache Houssem Eddine, Badji Riad, May Abdelghani,
Volume 20, Issue 3 (9-2023)
Abstract

The objective underlined in this work is to apply Rotary Friction Welding (RFW) process to joint similar AA2024 and TiAl6V4 welds. The experiment is conducted by varying the input parameters (rotational speed, friction pressure and friction time) using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array method. MINITAB software was used to plot the response chart. The output parameter considered in this approach is the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of the weld joint, where the optimum RFW condition for maximizing the UTS were determined. Besides, the most influential process parameter has been determined using statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, the general regression equations of the UTS for both materials are formulated and confirmed by means of the experimental tests values.
Deepak Jagannathana, Hiriyannaiah Adarsha, Keshavamurthy Ramaiah, Ramkumar Prabhud,
Volume 20, Issue 3 (9-2023)
Abstract

Several extensive researches are being carried out in the field of 3D printing. Polymer matrices, such as High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE), are less explored in particular on the microstructure and mechanical properties of HDPE composites developed via Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process. Very scarce amount of works is devoted to study HDPE’s reinforced with carbon nano-tubes (CNT’s) . In the present work, we report on the mechanical properties of  HDPE composites prepared via FDM process. Varying proportions of CNTs ( 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%) are used as reinforcements. It is found that increasing CNT content enhances impact and tensile strength, with HDPE/2.0%CNT outperforming pure HDPE by approximately 71.6% and 25.4%, respectively. HDPE/2.0%CNT composite also showed Young's modulus approximately 49.2% higher than pure HDPE. According to fracture analysis, pure HDPE failed near ductile, whereas composites failed brittle. CNTs occupy the free positions in the polymeric chains, and their tendency to restrict chain mobility causes HDPE to lose ductility and begin to behave brittle. The use of CNTs as reinforcement successfully improved the mechanical properties of HDPE.
Nailia Rakhimova, Vladimir Morozov, Aleksey Eskin, Bulat Galiullin,
Volume 20, Issue 3 (9-2023)
Abstract

In this study, the potential of calcined montmorillonite as a primary precursor for one-part alkali-activated cement incorporated with high percentage of limestone, is evaluated. Comparative studies on the properties of the sodium silicate activated metakaolin-limestone and metamontmorillonite-limestone fresh and hardened cement pastes depending on several formulation and processing parameters (precursor nature, dosages of limestone and alkali reactant, curing conditions) showed that metamontmorillonite exhibits reactivity comparable to that of metakaolin in the studied cement systems. The mechanical performance of optimal alkali-activated cement formulations consisted of 20-30% of metamontmorillonite and 70-80% of limestone is provided by both reactivity of metamontmorillomite under sodium silicate activation and the filler, nucleation, and chemical effects of the raw limestone. The reaction products and microstructures of alkali-activated metamontmorillonite-limestone cement-based hardened pastes were investigated using thermal, XRD, and SEM/EDS analyses.   
 
Salihah Alkhobrani, Hossein Bayahia, Fares T. Alshorifi,
Volume 20, Issue 3 (9-2023)
Abstract

In this study, CoFe2O4  (CoF) and ZnFe2O4 (ZnF) photocatalysts were successfully prepared by a facile and simple chemical precipitation method for degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) dyes under direct sunlight irradiation. The obtained ferrites were then characterized through XRD, TEM, EDS, UV-vis, and SEM. XRD and TEM results exhibited cubic nanostructures with sizes ranging from 9 to 16 nm and 11 to 18 nm for ZnF and CoF, respectively. SEM images showed homogenous, porous flat surfaces. EDS spectra confirmed the successful synthesis of ZnF and CoF nanostructures with high purity. UV-vis spectra results of MB and MO dyes showed maximum sunlight absorbance in the absence of ZnF and CoF, while a regular decrease in the sunlight absorbance was observed in the presence of ZnF and CoF within 15-60 min. The UV-vis results also showed that ZnF had higher photocatalytic activity than CoF. The experimental findings showed that the highest % degradation was 92.89% and 96.89% for MO and MB dyes, respectively, over ZnF compared to CoF photocatalyst (87.55% and 88.41% for MO and MB, respectively). These findings confirm that porous ZnF and CoF nanostructures are critical in promoting the degradation of dyes under sunlight instead of UV-vis light lamps that consume/require electrical energy.

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