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Showing 12 results for Subject: physical and thermal properties

S. Sagadevan, N. Nithya, R. Mahalakshmi,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

The study of amino acid based nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with optimum physical properties is an important area due to their practical applications such as optical communication, optical computing, optical information processing, optical disk data storage, laser fusion reactions, laser remote sensing, colour display, medical diagnostics, etc. Also, microelectronic industries require crystals which possess low dielectric constant at higher frequency. Keeping this in view, attempts have been made to grow nonlinear optical crystals and study their optical, electrical and mechanical properties. Nonlinear optical single crystals of dichloro-diglycine zinc II have been grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS-NIR spectrum, thermal, mechanical and dielectric studies. The results of characterization studies have been discussed in detail to understand their properties. The grown crystals have better thermal stability and sufficient mechanical strength. They are capable of inducing polarization due to dielectric behaviour when powerful laser beam is incident on them. The various characterization studies suggest that the grown crystals are promising materials for optoelectronic and nonlinear optical applications.

AWT IMAGE


M. Ebrahimi, S. A. Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. M. Masoudpanah,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2017)
Abstract

In this work, the effects of co-precipitation temperature and post calcination on the magnetic properties and photocatalytic activities of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated. The structure, magnetic and optical properties of zinc ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry and UV–Vis spectrophotometry techniques.  The XRD results showed that the coprecipitated as well as calcined nanoparticles are single phase with partially inverse spinel structures. The magnetization and band gap decreased with the increasing of co-precipitation temperature through the increasing of the crystallite size. However, the post calcination at 500 °C was more effective on the decreasing of magnetization and band gap. Furthermore, photocatalytic activity of zinc ferrite nanoparticles was studied by the degradation of methyl orange under UV-light irradiation. Compare with the coprecipitated ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles with 5% degradation of methyl orange after 5 h UV-light light radiation, the calcined ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles exhibited a better photocatalytic activity with 20% degradation.


S. Komeili, M. Takht Ravanchi, A. Taeb,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2017)
Abstract

A series of MAl2O4 (M=Ni, Zn, and Cu) aluminates were prepared by using impregnation method; the metal content of the products was ranged between 5wt% to 25wt%. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP).

The specific surface areas of zinc, nickel and copper aluminates were in the ranges of 47-77m2/g, 63-87m2/g and 1.6-3m2/g, respectively. The surface acidity decreased in the order of CuAl2O4<< NiAl2O4< ZnAl2O4<< Al2O3. By increasing the amount of metals in the samples, the number of acidic sites decreased, but their strength did not significantly change. Ni-aluminates have fewer acidic sites than Zn-aluminates, particularly in strong acid sites


R. Moreno Mendoza, D. A. Landínez Téllez, R. Cardona Cardona, L. A. Carrero Bermúdez, J. Roa-Rojas,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2017)
Abstract

In this work the procedure to the synthesis of Ba2GdSbO6 complex perovskite by the solid-state reaction method is reported. Theoretically a study of the crystalline and electronic structure was performed into the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The most stable structure is obtained to be a rhombohedral perovskite with a lattice constant a=6,0840 Å.  Due the occurrence of a mean energy gap of 2,84 eV close to the Fermi level for both up and down spin polarizations this material is classifies as insulator.  The effective magnetic moment of material obtained from the calculations was 7,0 mB. The crystalline structure was analyzed through the X-ray diffraction technique and Rietveld refinement of the experimental data. Results are strongly in agreement with those theoretically predicted. Magnetic response was studied from measurements of magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature. Results reveal the paramagnetic feature of this material in the temperature regime from 50 K up to 300 K. From the fitting with the Curie law the effective magnetic moment was obtained to be 8,1 mB, which is slightly higher that the theoretical value for the Gd3+ isolated cation predicted by the theory of paramagnetism. The energy gap obtained from experiments of diffuse reflectance is relatively in agreement with the theoretical predictions. The dielectric constant as a function of applied frequencies at room temperature was measured. Results reveal a decreasing behavior with a high value of dielectric constant at low applied frequencies


S. E. El-Shereafy, E. A. Gomaa, A.m. Yousif, A. Abou Elyazed,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2017)
Abstract

The redox behavior for bulk and nano silver nitrate (NSN) were studied by cyclic voltammetry technique in absence and presence of cefdinir antibiotic (CFD) using glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in 0.1 M KNO3 as supporting electrolyte at two different temperatures. Scan rates were studied for the redox reactions of bulk and nano silver nitrate (NSN) in absence and presence of cefdinir antibiotic (CFD) and mechanism of the electrode reactions were discussed. The stability constant of complexation and thermodynamic parameters for a system were evaluated

M. Taleblou, E. Borhani, B. Yarmand, A. Kolahi,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (9-2018)
Abstract

Thin films of SnS2 were prepared, as the absorber layer in solar cells, using an aqueous solution of SnCl4 and thiourea by spray pyrolysis technique. Effect of the Substrate temperature on the properties of these thin films was studied. Investigation via XRD showed the formation of polycrystalline SnS2 along (001) in all layers; there was no sign of other unwanted phases. With increasing of substrate temperature from 325 to 400 0C, the crystallinity of the sample was improved, after that, it deteriorated the crystallinity. Layers had granular morphology and Valley- Hills topography. UV-VIS spectra revealed that the transmittance of all layers was lower than 40% in the visible region and the band gap reduced from 2.8 to 2.55 eV with increment in temperature from 350 to 400 0C. Photoluminescence spectra of the prepared film, which was formed at 400 0C showed a dominant peak at 530 nm, caused recombination of excitons. The least electrical resistivity of the SnS2 thin film prepared at 400 0C in dark and light environment were 4.6 ×10 -3 Ωcm and 0.65×10 -3 Ωcm, respectively; which demonstrated 400 0C was the optimum temperature in point of optoelectrical properties in the SnS2 thin film.
 

R. Jafari, Sh. Mirdamadi, Sh. Kheirandish, H. Guim,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (9-2018)
Abstract

In this research, the objective was to investigate the stabilized retained austenite in the microstructure resulting from the Q&P heat treatment since the primary goal in Q&P is to create a microstructure consists of stabilized retained austenite and martensite. For this purpose, a low-alloy steel with 0.4wt. % carbon was treated by quench and partitioning (Q&P) process. The Q&P was conducted at different quench temperatures to obtain a considerable amount of retained austenite, while partitioning temperature and time were kept constant. Through analysis of the XRD profiles, volume percent, carbon concentration, and lattice parameters of retained austenite and martensite were calculated. At quench temperature equal to 160°C, 12vol.% austenite was stabilized to the room temperature, which was the highest amount achieved. The microstructural observations carried out on selected samples, revealed that retained austenite has a nanoscale particle size, about 200nm. Distinguishing retained austenite in the SEM micrographs became possible by utilizing SE2 signals via the difference in phases contrast. Two types of morphology, film-like and blocky type, were identified by means of TEM and TKD and a schematic model was proposed in order to explain these morphologies

S. Giridhar Reddy, A. Thakur,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (9-2018)
Abstract

Biodegradable polymer blends are prepared by solution casting method by mixing Sodium alginate (SA) and Lignosulphonic acid (LS) biodegradable polymers. In order to investigate for controlled drug delivery the thermal stability of polymer blends are the primary requirements because they should be stable in aqueous medium. The polymer blends are studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The TGA data are used to analyze degradation temperature and energy of activation using ‘Horowitz and Metzger’ an approximate integral method. The energy of activation reveals that blends are stable as compared to their polymers.
M. Abbasalizadeh, R. Hasanzadeh, Z. Mohamadian, T. Azdast, M. Rostami,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (12-2018)
Abstract

Shrinkage is one of the most important defects of injection molded plastic parts. Injection molding processing parameters have a significant effect on shrinkage of the produced parts. In the present study, the effect of different injection parameters on volumetric shrinkage of two polymers (high-density polyethylene (HDPE) semi-crystalline thermoplastics and polycarbonate (PC) as a representative of amorphous thermoplastics) was studied. Samples under different processing conditions according to a L27 orthogonal array of Taguchi experimental design approach were injected. Effect of material crystallinity on the shrinkage of injected samples was investigated. Obtained results revealed that semi-crystalline thermoplastics have larger shrinkage values in comparison with amorphous thermoplastics. Shrinkages of injected samples were also studied along and across the flow directions. Results showed that the flow path can dramatically affect the shrinkage of semi-crystalline thermoplastics. However for amorphous thermoplastics, results showed an independency of obtained shrinkage to flow direction. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results illustrated that cooling time was the most effective parameter on shrinkage for both PE and PC injected samples; followed by injection temperature as the second important parameter. The optimum conditions to minimize shrinkage of injection molded samples are also achieved using signal to noise ratio (S/N) analysis.
G. Chandraprabha, T. Sankarappa, T. Sujatha,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (12-2018)
Abstract

Polythiophene (PTh) and cobalt nanoparticles (Co-nps) were prepared by chemical oxidation and modified polyol processes respectively. Composites were made by mixing them in the proportions, PTh1-xCox; x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5.  Morphology of the samples has been studied by SEM technique. Dielectric properties with temperature and frequency as variables were investigated. Dielectric constant and loss factor decreased with frequency and increased with temperature. AC conductivity was estimated from the dielectric data. Ac conductivity decreased with increase of Co-nps in the composites which indicates that electrically insulating effect has been induced by Co-nps. Small polaron hopping mechanism is found to be the conduction mechanism operated. Activation energy for ac conduction decreased with increase of frequency and weight percent of Co-nps in the composites.  Electric modulus was determined and its analysis leads to the estimation of dielectric relaxation time. Relaxation time decreased with increase of temperature for all the five composites. For the first time PTh-Co nanocomposites have been reported for dielectric properties and ac conductivity as a function of frequency and temperature.
A. Ostovari Moghaddam, A. Shokuhfar, A. Cabot,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (12-2019)
Abstract

Metal sulfides containing non-toxic and earth abundant elements have emerged as new environmentally friendly thermoelectric materials. In the present work, a new, fast and large scale route to synthesise bulk nanostructured Co1-xCuxSbS paracostibite is presented. Stoichiometric compositions of Co1-xCuxSbS nanoparticles with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.08 were first processed by high energy ball milling for 3 h, and then annealed at different temperatures between 400 ºC to 650 ºC for 1 h. The phase transitions and diffusion process during annealing were thoroughly studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Agglomerated nanoparticles with sizes in the range from 40 nm to 80 nm were obtained after 3 h of ball milling, and remained below 100 nm after annealing and hot pressing. The thermoelectric properties of hot pressed samples, including the Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical conductivity (σ) and thermal conductivity (k), were measured from room temperature up to 723 K. All the samples exhibited a p-type semiconductor character at room temperature and underwent a transition from p-type to n-type conduction above 473 K. a maximum ZT value of 0.12 was obtained for Co0.06Cu0.04SbS4 at 723 K.

Reza Soleimani Gilakjani, Seyed Hossein Razavi, Masoumeh Seifollahi,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (3-2021)
Abstract

Niobium addition is an appropriate approach for improvement of superalloy’s operation. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to investigate on the η and γ/ phase precipitations along with (2) to identify the high-temperature tensile properties in A286 and Nb-A286, as a modified type. The heat treatment of both alloys was carried out in a two-stage aging procedure at 760°C for 16 h and 820°C for 2 to 30 hours, following characterized by optical and Scanning electron (SEM-EDS) microscopies, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and high temperature tensile tests. The results showed that niobium addition was increased the volume fraction of γ/ phase, from 10.7% to 12%, decreased its size, from 94 to 71 nm, and rising the γ/-dissolution temperature from 987°C to 1007°C. Moreover, the γ/ to η phase transformation was sluggishly occurred in Nb-A286 due to more stable of γ/ precipitations. Furthermore, the Nb-A286 alloy demonstrates higher mechanical properties than A286 one, approximately 100MPa improvement, which it was contributed to the much large volume fraction and finer size of more stabilized γ/ phase.
 

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